Fire Safety

Standards

Fire safety is addressed in specific OSHA standards for recordkeeping, general industry, maritime, and construction. This section highlights OSHA standards and documents related to fire safety.

OSHA Standards
Recording and Reporting Occupational Injuries and Illness (29 CFR 1904)
Recording and Reporting Occupational Injuries and Illness (29 CFR 1904)
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1904 Subpart B

1904.2, Partial exemption for establishments in certain industries.

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1904.7, General recording criteria.

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General Industry (29 CFR 1910)
General Industry (29 CFR 1910)
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1910 Subpart E - Exit Routes and Emergency Planning

1910.35, Compliance with alternate exit-route codes.

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1910.36, Design and construction requirements for exit routes.

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1910.37, Maintenance, safeguards, and operational features for exit routes.

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1910.38, Emergency action plans.

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1910.39, Fire prevention plans.

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1910 Subpart G - Occupational Health and Environmental Control

1910.94, Ventilation.

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1910 Subpart H - Hazardous Materials

1910.101, Compressed gases (general requirements).

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1910.102, Acetylene.

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1910.103, Hydrogen.

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1910.104, Oxygen.

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1910.106, Flammable liquids.

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1910.107, Spray finishing using flammable and combustible materials.

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1910.109, Explosives and blasting agents.

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1910.110, Storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gases.

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1910.111, Storage and handling of anhydrous ammonia.

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1910.119, Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

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1910.120, Hazardous waste operations and emergency response.

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1910 Subpart L - Fire Protection

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1910.155, Scope, application and definitions applicable to this subpart.

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1910.156, Fire brigades.

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1910.157, Portable fire extinguishers.

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1910.158, Standpipe and hose systems.

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1910.159, Automatic sprinkler systems.

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1910.160, Fixed extinguishing systems, general.

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1910.161, Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical.

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1910.162, Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent.

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1910.163, Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam.

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1910.164, Fire detection systems.

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1910.165, Employee alarm systems.

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1910 Subpart N - Materials Handling and Storage

1910.178, Powered industrial trucks.

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1910 Subpart Q - Welding, Cutting and Brazing

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1910.252, General requirements.

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1910.253, Oxygen-fuel gas welding and cutting.

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1910.255, Resistance welding.

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1910 Subpart R - Special Industries

1910.261, Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills.

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1910.263, Bakery equipment.

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1910.265, Sawmills.

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1910.266, Logging operations.

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1910.269, Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution.

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1910.272, Grain handling facilities.

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1910 Subpart Z - Toxic and Hazardous Substances

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1910.1200, Hazard Communication.

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Maritime (29 CFR 1915, 1917, 1918)
Maritime (29 CFR 1915, 1917, 1918)
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1915 Subpart P

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1915.501, General provisions.

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1915.502, Fire safety plan.

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1915.503, Precautions for hot work.

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1915.504, Fire watches.

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1915.505, Fire response.

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1915.506, Hazards of fixed extinguishing systems on board vessels and vessel sections.

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1915.507, Land-side fire protection systems.

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1915.508, Training.

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1915.509, Definitions applicable to this subpart.

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1917 Subpart B - Marine Terminal Operations

1917.21, Open fires.

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1917.30, Emergency action plans.

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1917 Subpart G - Related Terminal Operations and Equipment

1917.152, Welding, cutting and heating (hot work) (See also §1917.2, definition of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance, or atmosphere).

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1917.156, Fuel handling and storage.

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1917.158, Prohibited operations.

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1918 Subpart I

1918.100, Emergency action plans.

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Construction (29 CFR 1926)
Construction (29 CFR 1926)
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1926 Subpart C - General Safety and Health Provisions

1926.24, Fire protection and prevention.

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1926.34, Means of egress.

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1926.35, Employee emergency action plans.

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1926 Subpart D

1926.57, Ventilation.

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1926.64, Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals. For requirements as they pertain to construction work, follow the requirements in 29 CFR 1910.119.

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1926.65, Hazardous waste operations and emergency response.

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1926.66, Criteria for design and construction of spray booths.

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1926 Subpart F - Fire Protection and Prevention

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1926.150, Fire protection.

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1926.151, Fire prevention

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1926.152, Flammable liquids.

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1926.153, Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).

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1926.154, Temporary heating devices.

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1926.155, Definitions applicable to this subpart.

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1926 Subpart H - Materials Handling, Storage, Use, and Disposal

1926.252, Disposal of waste materials.

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1926 Subpart J - Welding and Cutting

1926.350, Gas welding and cutting.

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1926.352, Fire prevention.

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1926 Subpart K - Electrical

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1926.405, Wiring methods, components, and equipment for general use.

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1926.408, Special systems.

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1926 Subpart R

1926.752, Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction sequence.

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1926 Subpart S

1926.800, Underground Construction

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1926.803, Compressed air.

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1926 Subpart T

1926.850, Preparatory operations.

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1926 Subpart U

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State Standards

There are 28 OSHA-approved State Plans, operating state-wide occupational safety and health programs. State Plans are required to have standards and enforcement programs that are at least as effective as OSHA's and may have different or more stringent requirements.

Additional Directives

Note: The directives in this list provide additional information that is not necessarily connected to a specific OSHA standard highlighted on this Safety and Health Topics page.

National Consensus Standards and Recommendations from other Professional Organizations

Note: These are NOT OSHA regulations. However, they do provide guidance from their originating organizations related to worker protection.

International Code Council (ICC)

  • About ICC: Introduction to the ICC. Includes information about the ICC which initiated a request for recognition of its codes by OSHA in May of 2004, with submission of a document in November of 2005 that details a section by section comparison and analysis of the IBC with OSHA's rules in Subpart E. After review of that document OSHA made a preliminary finding, as noted in an ANPRM, recognizing the IBC and IFC as compliant with the OSHA requirements.
    • Current Code Development Cycle. Includes information about the code development cycle, the National Institute of Standard's (NIST) World Trade Center Recommendations, disaster response, comparison of the International Building Code (IBC) with NFPA 5000, the Building Construction and Safety Code, as well as ICC policies and procedures.

National Fire Prevention Association (NFPA)

  • Codes & Standards. Develops, publishes, and disseminates more than 300 consensus codes and standards intended to minimize the possibility and effects of fire and other risks. Virtually every building, process, service, design, and installation in society today is affected by NFPA documents.
    • 1, Uniform Fire Code
    • 101, Life Safety Code
    • 241, Standard for Safeguarding Construction, Alteration, and Demolition Operations
    • 5000, Building Construction and Safety Code

Consensus Standards and the General Duty Clause

Using Consensus standards to support a 5(a)(1) Citation:

A consensus standard can be used to show "industry recognition" of a hazard. However, the hazard must be recognized in the employers' industry, not an industry other than the employers' industry.

Section 5(a)(1):

  • is not used to enforce "should" standards.
  • is not used to required abatement methods not required by a specific standard.
  • is not normally used to cover categories of hazards exempted by an OSHA standard.

Background

Section 5(a)(1):

  • Each employer shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employee;
  • The general duty provisions can only be used where there is no standard that applies to the particular hazard involved.

Evaluation of Potential 5(a)(1) situations:

  • Employer failed to keep workplace free of hazards to which employees of that employer were exposed.
    • Must involve a serious hazard and employee exposure.
    • Does not specify a particular abatement method - only that the employer keeps the workplace free of serious hazards by any feasible and effective means.
    • The hazard must be reasonably foreseeable.
  • The hazard was recognized.
    • Industry recognition
    • Employer recognition
    • Common-sense recognition
  • The hazard caused or was likely to cause death or serious physical harm.
  • Feasible means to correct the hazard were available.