- Part Number:1910
- Part Number Title:Occupational Safety and Health Standards
- Subpart:1910 Subpart H
- Subpart Title:Hazardous Materials
- Standard Number:
- Title:Hazardous waste operations and emergency response.
- GPO Source:
Clean-up operations required by a governmental body, whether Federal, state, local or other involving hazardous substances that are conducted at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites (including, but not limited to, the EPA's National Priority Site List (NPL), state priority site lists, sites recommended for the EPA NPL, and initial investigations of government identified sites which are conducted before the presence or absence of hazardous substances has been ascertained);
Notes and Exceptions:
Employers who are not required to have a permit or interim status because they are conditionally exempt small quantity generators under 40 CFR 261.5 or are generators who qualify under 40 CFR 262.34 for exemptions from regulation under 40 CFR parts 264, 265 and 270 ("excepted employers") are not covered by paragraphs (p)(1) through (p)(7) of this section. Excepted employers who are required by the EPA or state agency to have their employees engage in emergency response or who direct their employees to engage in emergency response are covered by paragraph (p)(8) of this section, and cannot be exempted by (p)(8)(i) of this section.
Buddy system means a system of organizing employees into work groups in such a manner that each employee of the work group is designated to be observed by at least one other employee in the work group. The purpose of the buddy system is to provide rapid assistance to employees in the event of an emergency.
Clean-up operation means an operation where hazardous substances are removed, contained, incinerated, neutralized,d stabilized, cleared-up, or in any other manner processed or handled with the ultimate goal of making the site safer for people or the environment.
Decontamination means the removal of hazardous substances from employees and their equipment to the extent necessary to preclude the occurrence of foreseeable adverse health effects.
Emergency response or responding to emergencies means a response effort by employees from outside the immediate release area or by other designated responders (i.e., mutual aid groups, local fire departments, etc.) to an occurrence which results, or is likely to result, in an uncontrolled release of a hazardous substance. Responses to incidental releases of hazardous substances where the substance can be absorbed, neutralized, or otherwise controlled at the time of release by employees in the immediate release area, or by maintenance personnel are not considered to be emergency responses within the scope of this standard. Responses to releases of hazardous substances where there is no potential safety or health hazard (i.e., fire, explosion, or chemical exposure) are not considered to be emergency responses.
Facility means (A) any building, structure, installation, equipment, pipe or pipeline (including any pipe into a sewer or publicly owned treatment works), well, pit, pond, lagoon, impoundment, ditch, storage container, motor vehicle, rolling stock, or aircraft, or (B) any site or area where a hazardous substance has been deposited, stored, disposed of, or placed, or otherwise come to be located; but does not include any consumer product in consumer use or any water-borne vessel.
Hazardous materials response (HAZMAT) team means an organized group of employees, designated by the employer, who are expected to perform work to handle and control actual or potential leaks or spills of hazardous substances requiring possible close approach to the substance. The team members perform responses to releases or potential releases of hazardous substances for the purpose of control or stabilization of the incident. A HAZMAT team is not a fire brigade nor is a typical fire brigade a HAZMAT team. A HAZMAT team, however, may be a separate component of a fire brigade or fire department.
Hazardous substance means any substance designated or listed under (A) through (D) of this definition, exposure to which results or may result in adverse effects on the health or safety of employees:
[A] Any substance defined under section 103(14) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) (42 U.S.C. 9601).
[B] Any biologic agent and other disease causing agent which after release into the environment and upon exposure, ingestion, inhalation, or assimilation into any person, either directly from the environment or indirectly by ingestion through food chains, will or may reasonably be anticipated to cause death, disease, behavioral abnormalities, cancer, genetic mutation, physiological malfunctions (including malfunctions in reproduction) or physical deformations in such persons or their offspring.
[C] Any substance listed by the U.S. Department of Transportation as hazardous materials under 49 CFR 172.101 and appendices; and
[D] Hazardous waste as herein defined.
Hazardous waste means --
[A] A waste or combination of wastes as defined in 40 CFR 261.3, or
[B] Those substances defined as hazardous wastes in 49 CFR 171.8.
Hazardous waste operation means any operation conducted within the scope of this standard.
Hazardous waste site or Site means any facility or location within the scope of this standard at which hazardous waste operations take place.
Health hazard means a chemical or a pathogen where acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees. It also includes stress due to temperature extremes. The term health hazard includes chemicals that are classified in accordance with the Hazard Communication Standard, 29 CFR 1910.1200, as posing one of the following hazardous effects: Acute toxicity (any route of exposure); skin corrosion or irritation; serious eye damage or eye irritation; respiratory or skin sensitization; germ cell mutagenicity; carcinogenicity; reproductive toxicity; specific target organ toxicity (single or repeated exposure); aspiration toxicity or simple asphyxiant. (See Appendix A to § 1910.1200—Health Hazard Criteria (Mandatory) for the criteria for determining whether a chemical is classified as a health hazard.)
IDLH or Immediately dangerous to life or health means an atmospheric concentration of any toxic, corrosive or asphyxiant substance that poses an immediate threat to life or would interfere with an individual's ability to escape from a dangerous atmosphere.
Oxygen deficiency means that concentration of oxygen by volume below which atmosphere supplying respiratory protection must be provided. It exists in atmospheres where the percentage of oxygen by volume is less than 19.5 percent oxygen.
Permissible exposure limit means the exposure, inhalation or dermal permissible exposure limit specified in 29 CFR Part 1910, Subparts G and Z.
Published exposure level means the exposure limits published in "NIOSH Recommendations for Occupational Health Standards" dated 1986, which is incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6, or if none is specified, the exposure limits published in the standards specified by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists in their publication "Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices for 1987-88" dated 1987, which is incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6.
Post emergency response means that portion of an emergency response performed after the immediate threat of a release has been stabilized or eliminated and clean-up of the site has begun. If post emergency response is performed by an employer's own employees who were part of the initial emergency response, it is considered to be part of the initial response and not post emergency response. However, if a group of an employer's own employees, separate from the group providing initial response, performs the clean-up operation, then the separate group of employees would be considered to be performing post-emergency response and subject to paragraph (q)(11) of this section.
Qualified person means a person with specific training, knowledge and experience in the area for which the person has the responsibility and the authority to control.
Site safety and health supervisor (or official) means the individual located on a hazardous waste site who is responsible to the employer and has the authority and knowledge necessary to implement the site safety and health plan and verify compliance with applicable safety and health requirements.
Small quantity generator means a generator of hazardous wastes who in any calendar month generates no more than 1,000 kilograms (2,205) pounds of hazardous waste in that month.
Uncontrolled hazardous waste site means an area identified as an uncontrolled hazardous waste site by a governmental body, whether Federal, state, local or other where an accumulation of hazardous substances creates a threat to the health and safety of individuals or the environment or both. Some sites are found on public lands such as those created by former municipal, county or state landfills where illegal or poorly managed waste disposal has taken place. Other sites are found on private property, often belonging to generators or former generators of hazardous substance wastes. Examples of such sites include, but are not limited to, surface impoundments, landfills, dumps, and tank or drum farms. Normal operations at TSD sites are not covered by this definition.
NOTE TO (b): Safety and health programs developed and implemented to meet other federal, state, or local regulations are considered acceptable in meeting this requirement if they cover or are modified to cover the topics required in this paragraph. An additional or separate safety and health program is not required by this paragraph.
NOTE TO PARAGRAPH (c)(7). - Risks to consider include, but are not limited to:
[a] Exposures exceeding the permissible exposure limits and published exposure levels.
[b] IDLH Concentrations.
[c] Potential Skin Absorption and Irritation Sources.
[d] Potential Eye Irritation Sources.
[e] Explosion Sensitivity and Flammability Ranges.
[f] Oxygen deficiency.
Elements of the site control program. The site control program shall, as a minimum, include: A site map; site work zones; the use of a "buddy system"; site communications including alerting means for emergencies; the standard operating procedures or safe work practices; and, identification of the nearest medical assistance. Where these requirements are covered elsewhere they need not be repeated.
The name of the employee;
NOTE TO PARAGRAPH (g)(1)(i): Engineering controls which may be feasible include the use of pressurized cabs or control booths on equipment, and/or the use of remotely operated material handling equipment. Work practices which may be feasible are removing all non-essential employees from potential exposure during opening of drums, wetting down dusty operations and locating employees upwind of possible hazards.
NOTE TO PARAGRAPH (g)(3): The level of employee protection provided may be decreased when additional information or site conditions show that decreased protection will not result in hazardous exposures to employees.
NOTE TO PARAGRAPH (h): It is not required to monitor employees engaged in site characterization operations covered by paragraph (c) of this section.
Informational programs. Employers shall develop and implement a program which is part of the employer's safety and health program required in paragraph (b) of this section to inform employees, contractors, and subcontractors (or their representative) actually engaged in hazardous waste operations of the nature, level and degree of exposure likely as a result of participation in such hazardous waste operations. Employees, contractors and subcontractors working outside of the operations part of a site are not covered by this standard.
Caution: Shipping of shock sensitive wastes may be prohibited under U.S. Department of Transportation regulations. Employers and their shippers should refer to 49 CFR 173.21 and 173.50.
Illumination. Areas accessible to employees shall be lighted to not less than the minimum illumination intensities listed in the following Table H-120.1 while any work is in progress:
|TABLE H-120.1. -- MINIMUM ILLUMINATION INTENSITIES IN FOOT-CANDLES|
|Foot-candles||Area or operations|
|5||General site areas.|
|3||Excavation and waste areas, accessways, active storage areas, loading platforms, refueling, and field maintenance areas.|
|5||Indoors: warehouses, corridors, hallways, and exitways.|
|5||Tunnels, shafts, and general underground work areas; (Exception: minimum of 10 foot-candles is required at tunnel and shaft heading during drilling, mucking, and scaling. Mine Safety and Health Administration approved cap lights shall be acceptable for use in the tunnel heading.|
|10||General shops (e.g., mechanical and electrical equipment rooms, active storerooms, barracks or living quarters, locker or dressing rooms, dining areas, and indoor toilets and workrooms.|
|30||First aid stations, infirmaries, and offices.|
Toilets shall be provided for employees according to Table H-120.2.
|TABLE H-120.2. -- TOILET FACILITIES|
|Number of employees||Minimum number of facilities|
|20 or fewer||One.|
|More than 20, fewer than 200||One toilet seat and 1 urinal per 40 employees.|
|More than 200||One toilet seat and 1 urinal per 50 employees.|
Certain Operations Conducted Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Employers conducting operations at treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) facilities specified in paragraph (a)(1)(iv) of this section shall provide and implement the programs specified in this paragraph. See the "Notes and Exceptions" to paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section for employers not covered.
NOTE TO §1910.120 - The exemption for hazardous waste provided in 1910.1200 is applicable to this section.
Exception #1: an employer need not train all employees to the degree specified if the employer divides the work force in a manner such that a sufficient number of employees who have responsibility to control emergencies have the training specified, and all other employees, who may first respond to an emergency incident, have sufficient awareness training to recognize that an emergency response situation exists and that they are instructed in that case to summon the fully trained employees and not attempt control activities for which they are not trained.
Exception #2: An employer need not train all employees to the degree specified if arrangements have been made in advance for an outside fully-trained emergency response team to respond in a reasonable period and all employees, who may come to the incident first, have sufficient awareness training to recognize that an emergency response situation exists and they have been instructed to call the designated outside fully-trained emergency response team for assistance.
The senior emergency response official responding to an emergency shall become the individual in charge of a site-specific Incident Command System (ICS). All emergency responders and their communications shall be coordinated and controlled through the individual in charge of the ICS assisted by the senior official present for each employer.
NOTE TO PARAGRAPH (q)(3)(i). - The "senior official" at an emergency response is the most senior official on the site who has the responsibility for controlling the operations at the site. Initially it is the senior officer on the first-due piece of responding emergency apparatus to arrive on the incident scene. As more senior officers arrive (i.e. , battalion chief, fire chief, state law enforcement official, site coordinator, etc.) the position is passed up the line of authority which has been previously established.
APPENDICES TO §1910.120 - HAZARDOUS WASTE OPERATIONS AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE
NOTE: The following appendices serve as non-mandatory guidelines to assist employees and employers in complying with the appropriate requirements of this section. However paragraph 1910.120(g) makes mandatory in certain circumstances the use of Level A and Level B PPE protection.
[61 FR 9227, March 7, 1996; 67 FR 67964, Nov. 7, 2002; 71 FR 16672, April 3, 2006; 76 FR 80738, Dec. 27, 2011; 77 FR 17776, March 26, 2012; 78 FR 9313, Feb. 8, 2013; 84 FR 21598, May 14, 2019]