- Part Number:1910
- Part Number Title:Occupational Safety and Health Standards
- Subpart:1910 Subpart N
- Subpart Title:Materials Handling and Storage
- Standard Number:
- Title:Powered industrial trucks.
- GPO Source:
All new powered industrial trucks acquired and used by an employer shall meet the design and construction requirements for powered industrial trucks established in the “American National Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks, Part II, ANSI B56.1-1969”, which is incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6, except for vehicles intended primarily for earth moving or over-the-road hauling.
Approved trucks shall bear a label or some other identifying mark indicating approval by the testing laboratory. See paragraph (a)(7) of this section and paragraph 405 of “American National Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks, Part II, ANSI B56.1-1969”, which is incorporated by reference in paragraph (a)(2) of this section and which provides that if the powered industrial truck is accepted by a nationally recognized testing laboratory it should be so marked.
As used in this section, the term, approved truck or approved industrial truck means a truck that is listed or approved for fire safety purposes for the intended use by a nationally recognized testing laboratory, using nationally recognized testing standards. Refer to § 1910.155(c)(3)(iv)(A) for definition of listed, and to § 1910.7 for definition of nationally recognized testing laboratory.
Designations. For the purpose of this standard there are eleven different designations of industrial trucks or tractors as follows: D, DS, DY, E, ES, EE, EX, G, GS, LP, and LPS.
(a) Power-operated industrial trucks shall not be used in atmospheres containing hazardous concentrations of metal dust, including aluminum, magnesium, and their commercial alloys, other metals of similarly hazardous characteristics, or in atmospheres containing carbon black, coal or coke dust except approved power-operated industrial trucks designated as EX may be used in such atmospheres.
(b) In atmospheres where dust of magnesium, aluminum or aluminum bronze may be present, fuses, switches, motor controllers, and circuit breakers of trucks shall have enclosures specifically approved for such locations.
Power-operated industrial trucks designated as DY, EE, or EX may be used in locations where volatile flammable liquids or flammable gases are handled, processed or used, but in which the hazardous liquids, vapors or gases will normally be confined within closed containers or closed systems from which they can escape only in case of accidental rupture or breakdown of such containers or systems, or in the case of abnormal operation of equipment; also in locations in which hazardous concentrations of gases or vapors are normally prevented by positive mechanical ventilation but which might become hazardous through failure or abnormal operation of the ventilating equipment; or in locations which are adjacent to Class I, Division 1 locations, and to which hazardous concentrations of gases or vapors might occasionally be communicated unless such communication is prevented by adequate positive-pressure ventilation from a source of clear air, and effective safeguards against ventilation failure are provided.
|Classes||Unclassified||Class I locations||Class II locations||Class III locations|
|Description of classes||Locations not possessing atmospheres as described in other columns||Locations in which flammable gases or vapors are, or may be, present in the air in quantities sufficient to produce explosive or ignitible mixtures||Locations which are hazardous because of the presence of combustible dust||Locations where easily ignitible fibers or flyings are present but not likely to be in suspension in quantities sufficient to produce ignitible mixtures.|
|Groups in classes||None||A||B||C||D||E||F||G||None|
|Examples of locations or atmospheres in classes and groups||Piers and wharves inside and outside general storage, general industrial or commercial properties||Acetylene||Hydrogen||Ethyl ether||Gasoline
|Metal dust||Carbon black coal dust, coke dust||Grain dust, flour dust, starch dust, organic dust||Baled waste, cocoa fiber, cotton, excelsior, hemp, istle, jute, kapok, oakum, sisal, Spanish moss, synthetic fibers, tow.|
|Divisions (nature of hazardous conditions)||None||Above condition exists continuously, intermittently, or periodically under normal operating conditions||Above condition may occur accidentally as due to a puncture of a storage drum||Explosive mixture may be present under normal operating conditions, or where failure of equipment may cause the condition to exist simultaneously with arcing or sparking of electrical equipment, or where dusts of an electrically conducting nature may be present||Explosive mixture not normally present, but where deposits of dust may cause heat rise in electrical equipment, or where such deposits may be ignited by arcs or sparks from electrical equipment||Locations in which easily ignitible fibers or materials producing combustible flyings are handled, manufactured, or used||Locations in which easily ignitible fibers are stored or handled (except in the process of manufacture).|
|Groups in classes||None||A||B||C||D||A||B||C||D||E||F||G||E||F||G||None||None|
|Type of truck authorized:|
|Paragraph Ref. in No. 505||210.211||201
**Trucks conforming to these types may also be used - see subdivision (c)(2)(x) and (c)(2)(xii) of this section.
(a) Only approved power operated industrial trucks designated as EX shall be used in atmospheres in which combustible dust is or may be in suspension continuously, intermittently, or periodically under normal operating conditions, in quantities sufficient to produce explosive or ignitable mixtures, or where mechanical failure or abnormal operation of machinery or equipment might cause such mixtures to be produced.
(b) The EX classification usually includes the working areas of grain handling and storage plants, room containing grinders or pulverizers, cleaners, graders, scalpers, open conveyors or spouts, open bins or hoppers, mixers, or blenders, automatic or hopper scales, packing machinery, elevator heads and boots, stock distributors, dust and stock collectors (except all-metal collectors vented to the outside), and all similar dust producing machinery and equipment in grain processing plants, starch plants, sugar pulverizing plants, malting plants, hay grinding plants, and other occupancies of similar nature; coal pulverizing plants (except where the pulverizing equipment is essentially dust tight); all working areas where metal dusts and powders are produced, processed, handled, packed, or stored (except in tight containers); and other similar locations where combustible dust may, under normal operating conditions, be present in the air in quantities sufficient to produce explosive or ignitable mixtures.
Converted industrial trucks. Power-operated industrial trucks that have been originally approved for the use of gasoline for fuel, when converted to the use of liquefied petroleum gas fuel in accordance with paragraph (q) of this section, may be used in those locations where G, GS or LP, and LPS designated trucks have been specified in the preceding paragraphs.
Fuel handling and storage.
The storage and handling of liquid fuels such as gasoline and diesel fuel shall be in accordance with NFPA Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code (NFPA No. 30-1969), which is incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6.
The storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gas fuel shall be in accordance with NFPA Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases (NFPA No. 58-1969), which is incorporated by reference as specified in § 1910.6.
Changing and charging storage batteries.
Lighting for operating areas.
Control of noxious gases and fumes.
Concentration levels of carbon monoxide gas created by powered industrial truck operations shall not exceed the levels specified in § 1910.1000.
Dockboards (bridge plates). See subpart D of this part.
Trucks and railroad cars.
Training program implementation.
Training program content. Powered industrial truck operators shall receive initial training in the following topics, except in topics which the employer can demonstrate are not applicable to safe operation of the truck in the employer's workplace.
Refresher training and evaluation.
Avoidance of duplicative training. If an operator has previously received training in a topic specified in paragraph (l)(3) of this section, and such training is appropriate to the truck and working conditions encountered, additional training in that topic is not required if the operator has been evaluated and found competent to operate the truck safely.
Certification. The employer shall certify that each operator has been trained and evaluated as required by this paragraph (l). The certification shall include the name of the operator, the date of the training, the date of the evaluation, and the identity of the person(s) performing the training or evaluation.
Dates. The employer shall ensure that operators of powered industrial trucks are trained, as appropriate, by the dates shown in the following table.
|If the employee was hired:||The initial training and evaluation of that employee must be completed:|
|Before December 1, 1999||By December 1, 1999.|
|After December 1, 1999||Before the employee is assigned to operate a powered industrial truck.|
Operation of the truck.
Maintenance of industrial trucks.
Industrial trucks shall be examined before being placed in service, and shall not be placed in service if the examination shows any condition adversely affecting the safety of the vehicle. Such examination shall be made at least daily.
Where industrial trucks are used on a round-the-clock basis, they shall be examined after each shift. Defects when found shall be immediately reported and corrected.
Industrial trucks originally approved for the use of gasoline for fuel may be converted to liquefied petroleum gas fuel provided the complete conversion results in a truck which embodies the features specified for LP or LPS designated trucks. Such conversion equipment shall be approved. The description of the component parts of this conversion system and the recommended method of installation on specific trucks are contained in the "Listed by Report."
[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 40 FR 23073, May 28, 1975; 43 FR 49749, Oct. 24, 1978; 49 FR 5322, Feb. 10, 1984; 53 FR 12122, Apr. 12, 1988; 55 FR 32015, Aug. 6, 1990; 61 FR 9227, March 7, 1996; 63 FR 66270, Dec. 1, 1998; 68 FR 32638, June 2, 2003; 71 FR 16672, April 3, 2006; 81 83005, Nov. 18, 2016]