- Part Number:1910
- Part Number Title:Occupational Safety and Health Standards
- Subpart:1910 Subpart Q
- Subpart Title:Welding, Cutting and Brazing
- Standard Number:
- Title:General requirements.
- GPO Source:
Restrictions. If the requirements stated in paragraphs (a)(1)(i) and (a)(1)(ii) of this section cannot be followed then welding and cutting shall not be performed.
Fire extinquishers. Suitable fire extinguishing equipment shall be maintained in a state of readiness for instant use. Such equipment may consist of pails of water, buckets of sand, hose or portable extinguishers depending upon the nature and quantity of the combustible material exposed.
In areas near the storage of large quantities of exposed, readily ignitible materials such as bulk sulfur, baled paper, or cotton.
The following is a guide for the selection of the proper shade numbers. These recommendations may be varied to suit the individual's needs.
|Welding operation||Shade No.|
|Shielded metal-arc welding - 1⁄16-, 3⁄32-, ⅛-, 5⁄32-inch electrodes||10|
|Gas-shielded arc welding (nonferrous) - 1⁄16-, 3⁄32-, ⅛-, 5⁄32-inch electrodes||11|
|Gas-shielded arc welding (ferrous) - 1⁄16-, 3⁄32-, ⅛-, 5⁄32-inch electrodes||12|
|Shielded metal-arc welding:|
|3⁄16-, 7⁄32-, ¼-inch electrodes||12|
|5⁄16-, ⅜-inch electrodes||14|
|Atomic hydrogen welding||10-14|
|Carbon arc welding||14|
|Torch brazing||3 or 4|
|Light cutting, up to 1 inch||3 or 4|
|Medium cutting, 1 inch to 6 inches||4 or 5|
|Heavy cutting, 6 inches and over||5 or 6|
|Gas welding (light) up to ⅛ inch||4 or 5|
|Gas welding (medium) ⅛ inch to ½ inch||5 or 6|
|Gas welding (heavy) ½ inch and over||6 or 8|
Note: In gas welding or oxygen cutting where the torch produces a high yellow light, it is desirable to use a filter or lens that absorbs the yellow or sodium line in the visible light of the operation.
Protective clothing - General requirements. Employees exposed to the hazards created by welding, cutting, or brazing operations shall be protected by personal protective equipment in accordance with the requirements of § 1910.132 of this part. Appropriate protective clothing required for any welding operation will vary with the size, nature and location of the work to be performed.
Maximum allowable concentration. Local exhaust or general ventilating systems shall be provided and arranged to keep the amount of toxic fumes, gases, or dusts below the maximum allowable concentration as specified in § 1910.1000 of this part.
Hazard communication. The employer shall include the potentially hazardous materials employed in fluxes, coatings, coverings, and filler metals, all of which are potentially used in welding and cutting, or are released to the atmosphere during welding and cutting, in the program established to comply with the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) (§ 1910.1200). The employer shall ensure that each employee has access to labels on containers of such materials and safety data sheets, and is trained in accordance with the provisions of § 1910.1200. Potentially hazardous materials shall include but not be limited to the materials itemized in paragraphs (c)(5) through (c)(12) of this section.
Do not use in areas without adequate ventilation. See ANSI Z49.1-1967 Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes published by the American Welding Society.
Welding may produce fumes and gases hazardous to health. Avoid breathing these fumes and gases. Use adequate ventilation. See ANSI Z49.1-1967 Safety in Welding and Cutting published by the American Welding Society.
Brazing (welding) filler metals containing cadmium in significant amounts shall carry the following notice on tags, boxes, or other containers:
CONTAINS CADMIUM - POISONOUS FUMES MAY BE FORMED ON HEATING
Do not breathe fumes. Use only with adequate ventilation such as fume collectors, exhaust ventilators, or air-supplied respirators. See ANSI Z49.1-1967. If chest pain, cough, or fever develops after use call physician immediately.
Brazing and gas welding fluxes containing fluorine compounds shall have a cautionary wording to indicate that they contain fluorine compounds. One such cautionary wording recommended by the American Welding Society for brazing and gas welding fluxes reads as follows:
This flux when heated gives off fumes that may irritate eyes, nose and throat.
1. Avoid fumes - use only in well-ventilated spaces.
2. Avoid contact of flux with eyes or skin.
3. Do not take internally.
In a space of less than 10,000 cubic feet (284 m3) per welder.
Minimum rate. Such ventilation shall be at the minimum rate of 2,000 cubic feet (57 m3) per minute per welder, except where local exhaust hoods and booths as per paragraph (c)(3) of this section, or airline respirators approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, pursuant to the provisions of 30 CFR part 11, are provided. Natural ventilation is considered sufficient for welding or cutting operations where the restrictions in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section are not present.
Hoods. Freely movable hoods intended to be placed by the welder as near as practicable to the work being welded and provided with a rate of air-flow sufficient to maintain a velocity in the direction of the hood of 100 linear feet (30 m) per minute in the zone of welding when the hood is at its most remote distance from the point of welding. The rates of ventilation required to accomplish this control velocity using a 3-inch (7.6 cm) wide flanged suction opening are shown in the following table:
|Welding zone||Minimum air flow1 cubic feet/minute||Duct diameter, inches2|
|4 to 6 inches from arc or torch||150||3|
|6 to 8 inches from arc or torch||275||3½|
|8 to 10 inches from arc or torch||425||4½|
|10 to 12 inches from arc or torch||600||5½|
1 When brazing with cadmium bearing materials or when cutting on such materials increased rates of ventilation may be required.
2 Nearest half-inch duct diameter based on 4,000 feet per minute velocity in pipe.
Beryllium. Welding or cutting indoors, outdoors, or in confined spaces involving beryllium-containing base or filler metals shall be done using local exhaust ventilation and airline respirators unless atmospheric tests under the most adverse conditions have established that the workers' exposure is within the acceptable concentrations defined by § 1910.1000 of this part. In all cases, workers in the immediate vicinity of the welding or cutting operations shall be protected as necessary by local exhaust ventilation or airline respirators.
[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 40 FR 23073, May 28, 1975; 43 FR 49750, Oct. 24, 1978; 49 FR 5323, Feb. 10, 1984; 51 FR 34562, Sept. 29, 1986; 54 FR 24334, June 7, 1989; 55 FR 13696, Apr. 11, 1990; 61 FR 9227, March 7, 1996; 63 FR 1152, Jan. 8, 1998; 74 FR 46357, Sept. 9, 2009; 77 FR 17777, March 26, 2012]