• Part Number:
  • Part Number Title:
    Occupational Safety and Health Standards
  • Subpart:
    1910 Subpart R
  • Subpart Title:
    Special Industries
  • Standard Number:
  • Title:
  • GPO Source:
General requirements—Application. This section includes safety requirements for sawmill operations including, but not limited to, log and lumber handling, sawing, trimming, and planing; waste disposal; operation of dry kilns; finishing; shipping; storage; yard and yard equipment; and for power tools and affiliated equipment used in connection with such operations, but excluding the manufacture of plywood, cooperage, and veneer.
Definitions applicable to this section
A-frame. The term A-frame means a structure made of two independent columns fastened together at the top and separated at the bottom for stability.
Annealing. The term annealing means heating then cooling to soften and render less brittle.
Binder. The term binder means a chain, cable, rope, or other approved material used for binding loads.
Boom. The term boom means logs or timbers fastened together end to end and used to contain floating logs. The term includes enclosed logs.
Brow log. The term brow log means a log placed parallel to a roadway at a landing or dump to protect vehicles while loading or unloading.
Bunk. The term bunk means a cross support for a load.
Cant. The term cant means a log slabbed on one or more sides.
Carriage (log carriage). The term carriage means a framework mounted on wheels which runs on tracks or in grooves in a direction parallel to the face of the saw, and which contains apparatus to hold a log securely and advance it towards the saw.
Carrier. The term carrier means an industrial truck so designed and constructed that it straddles the load to be transported with mechanisms to pick up the load and support it during transportation.
Chipper. The term chipper means a machine which cuts material into chips.
Chock (bunk block) (cheese block). The terms chock, bunk block, and cheese block mean a wedge that prevents logs or loads from moving.
Cold deck. The term cold deck means a pile of logs stored for future removal.
Crotch lines. The term crotch lines means two short lines attached to a hoisting line by a ring or shackle, the lower ends being attached to loading hooks.
Dog (carriage dog). The term dog means a steel tooth, one or more of which are attached to each carriage knee to hold log firmly in place on carriage.
Drag saw. The term drag saw means a power-driven, reciprocating crosscut saw mounted on suitable frame and used for bucking logs.
Head block. The term head block means that part of a carriage which holds the log and upon which it rests. It generally consists of base, knee, taper set, and mechanism.
Head rig. The term head rig means a combination of head saw and log carriage used for the initial breakdown of logs into timbers, cants, and boards.
Hog. The term hog means a machine for cutting or grinding slabs and other coarse residue from the mill.
Husk. The term husk means a head saw framework on a circular mill.
Industrial truck. The term industrial truck means a mobile powerdriven truck or tractor.
Kiln tender. The term kiln tender means the operator of a kiln.
Lift truck. The term lift truck means an industrial truck used for lateral transportation and equipped with a power-operated lifting device, usually in the form of forks, for piling or unpiling lumber units or packages.
Live rolls. The term live rolls means cylinders of wood or metal mounted on horizontal axes and rotated by power, which are used to convey slabs, lumber, and other wood products.
Loading boom. The term loading boom means any structure projecting from a pivot point to guide a log when lifted.
Log deck. The term Log deck means a platform in the sawmill on which the logs remain until needed for sawing.
Lumber hauling truck. The term lumber hauling truck means an industrial truck, other than a lift truck or a carrier, used for the transport of lumber.
Log haul. The term log haul means a conveyor for transferring logs to mill.

Package. The term package means a unit of lumber.


Peavy. The term peavy means a stout wooden handle fitted with a spike and hook and used for rolling logs.


Pike pole. The term pike pole means a long pole whose end is shod with a sharp pointed spike.


Pitman rod. The term pitman rod means connecting rod.

Resaw. The term resaw means band, circular, or sash gang saws used to break down slabs, cants, or flitches into lumber.
Running line. The term running line means any moving rope as distinguished from a stationary rope such as a guyline.

Safety factor. The term safety factor means a calculated reduction factor which may be applied to laboratory test values to obtain safe working stresses for wooden beams and other mechanical members; ratio of breaking load to safe load.


Saw guide. The term saw guide means a device for steadying a circular or bandsaw.


Setwork. The term setwork means a mechanism on a sawmill carriage which enables an operator to move the log into position for another cut.


Sorting gaps. The term sorting gaps means the areas on a log pond enclosed by boom sticks into which logs are sorted.

Spreader wheel. The term spreader wheel means a metal wheel that separates the board from the log in back of circular saws to prevent binding.
Splitter. The term splitter means a knife-type, nonrotating spreader.

Sticker. The term sticker means a strip of wood or other material used to separate layers of lumber.

Stiff boom. The term stiff boom means the anchored, stationary boom sticks which are tied together and on which boom men work.
Swifter. The term swifter is a means of tying boom sticks together to prevent them from spreading while being towed.
Telltale. The term telltale means a device used to serve as a warning for overhead objects.
Top saw. The term top saw means the upper of two circular saws on a head rig, both being on the same husk.
Tramway. The term tramway means a way for trams, usually consisting of parallel tracks laid on wooden beams.
Trestle. The term trestle means a braced framework of timbers, piles or steelwork for carrying a road or railroad over a depression.
Building facilities, and isolated equipment
Safety factor. All buildings, docks, tramways, walkways, log dumps, and other structures shall be designed, constructed and maintained so as to support the imposed load in accordance with a safety factor.
Work areas. Work areas under mills shall be as evenly surfaced as local conditions permit. They shall be free from unnecessary obstructions and provided with lighting facilities in accordance with American National Standard for Industrial Lighting A11.1—1965, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.
Floors. Flooring in buildings and on ramps and walkways shall be constructed and installed in accordance with established principles of mechanics and sound engineering practices. They shall be of adequate strength to support the estimated or actual dead and live loads acting on them with the resultant stress not exceeding the allowable stress for the material being used.
Areas beneath floor openings. Areas under floor openings shall, where practical, be fenced off. When this is not practical, they shall be plainly marked and telltales shall be installed to hang over these areas.
Floor maintenance. The flooring of buildings, docks, and passageways shall be kept in good repair. When a hazardous condition develops that cannot be immediately repaired, the area shall be guarded until adequate repairs are made.
Nonslip floors. Floors, footwalks, and passageways in the work area around machines or other places where a person is required to stand or walk shall be provided with effective means to minimize slipping.
Walkways, docks, and platforms
Width. Walkways, docks, and platforms shall be of sufficient width to provide adequate passage and working areas.
Maintenance. Walkways shall be evenly floored and kept in good repair.
Docks. Docks and runways used for the operation of lift trucks and other vehicles shall have a substantial guard or shear timber except where loading and unloading are being performed.
Elevated walks. All elevated walks, runways, or platforms, if 4 feet or more from the floor level, shall be provided with a standard railing except on loading or unloading sides of platforms. If height exceeds 6 feet, a standard toe board also shall be provided to prevent material from rolling or falling off.
Elevated platforms. Where elevated platforms are used routinely on a daily basis, they shall be equipped with stairways or fixed ladders that comply with subpart D of this part.
Hazardous locations. Where required, walkways and stairways with standard handrails shall be provided in elevated and hazardous locations. Where such passageways are over walkways or work areas, standard toe boards shall be provided.
Construction. Stairways shall be constructed in accordance with subpart D of this part.
Handrails. Stairways shall be provided with a standard handrail on at least one side or on any open side. Where stairs are more than four feet wide there shall be a standard handrail at each side, and where more than eight feet wide, a third standard handrail shall be erected in the center of the stairway.
Lighting. All stairways shall be adequately lighted as prescribed in paragraph (c)(9) of this section.
Emergency exits including doors and fire escapes
Opening. Doors shall not open directly on or block a flight of stairs, and shall swing in the direction of exit travel.
Identification. Exits shall be located and identified in a manner that affords ready exit from all work areas.
Swinging doors. All swinging doors shall be provided with windows; with one window for each section of double swinging doors. Such windows shall be of shatterproof or safety glass unless otherwise protected against breakage.
Sliding doors. Where sliding doors are used as exits, an inner door shall be cut inside each of the main doors and arranged to open outward.
Barriers and warning signs. Where a doorway opens upon a railroad track or upon a tramway or dock over which vehicles travel, a barrier or other warning device shall be placed to prevent workmen from stepping into moving traffic.
Air requirements. Ventilation shall be provided to supply adequate fresh healthful air to rooms, buildings, and work areas.
Vats and tanks. All open vats and tanks into which workmen could fall shall be guarded.
Adequacy. Illumination shall be provided and designed to supply adequate general and local lighting to rooms, buildings, and work areas during the time of use.
Effectiveness. Factors upon which the adequacy and effectiveness of illumination will be judged, include the following:
The quantity of light in foot-candle intensity shall be sufficient for the work being done.
The quality of the light shall be such that it is free from glare, and has correct direction, diffusion, and distribution.
Shadows and extreme contrasts shall be avoided or kept to a minimum.
Hazard marking. Physical hazard marking shall be as specified in §1910.144 of this part.
Hydraulic systems. Means shall be provided to block, chain, or otherwise secure equipment normally supported by hydraulic pressure so as to provide for safe maintenance.
Gas piping and appliances. All gas piping and appliances shall be installed in accordance with the American National Standard Requirements for the Installation of Gas Appliances and Gas Piping Z21.30—1964, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.
Standards. Construction, operation, and maintenance of conveyors shall be in accordance with American National Standard B20.1—1957, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.
Guarding. Spiked live rolls shall be guarded.
Stationary tramways and trestles
Foundations and walkways. Tramways and trestles shall have substantial mud sills or foundations which shall be frequently inspected and kept in repair. When vehicles are operated on tramways and trestles which are used for foot passage, traffic shall be controlled or a walkway with standard handrails at the outer edge and shear timber on the inner edge shall be provided. This walkway shall be wide enough to allow adequate clearance to vehicles. When walkways cross over other thoroughfares, they shall be solidly fenced at the outer edge to a height of 42 inches over such thoroughfares.
Clearance. Stationary tramways and trestles shall have a vertical clearance of 22 feet over railroad rails. When constructed over carrier docks or roads, they shall have a clearance of 6 feet above the driver's foot rest on the carrier, and in no event shall this clearance be less than 12 feet from the roadway. In existing operations where it is impractical to obtain such clearance, telltales, electric signals, signs or other precautionary measures shall be installed.
Blower, collecting, and exhaust systems

Design, construction, and maintenance. Blower collecting, and exhaust systems should be designed, constructed, and maintained in accordance with American National Standards Z33.1—1961 (For the Installation of Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock, and Vapor Removal or Conveying) and Z12.2—1962 (R1969) (Code for the Prevention of Dust Explosion in Woodworking and Wood Flour Manufacturing Plants), which are incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.

Collecting systems. All mills containing one or more machines that create dust, shavings, chips, or slivers during a period of time equal to or greater than one-fourth of the working day, shall be equipped with a collecting system. It may be either continuous or automatic, and shall be of sufficient strength and capacity to enable it to remove such refuse from points of operation and immediate vicinities of machines and work areas.
Exhaust or conveyor systems. Each woodworking machine that creates dust, shavings, chips, or slivers shall be equipped with an exhaust or conveyor system located and adjusted to remove the maximum amount of refuse from the point of operation and immediate vicinity.
Dust chambers. Exhaust pipes shall not discharge into an unconfined outside pile if uncontrolled fire or explosion hazards are created. They may empty into settling or dust chambers, designed to prevent the dust or refuse from entering any work area. Such chambers shall be constructed and operated to minimize the danger of fire or dust explosion.
Hand removal of refuse. Provision for the daily removal of refuse shall be made in all operations not required to have an exhaust system or having refuse too heavy, bulky, or otherwise unsuitable to be handled by the exhaust system.
Whole-log chippers. The feed system to the chipper shall be arranged so the operator does not stand in direct line with the chipper spout (hopper). The chipper spout shall be enclosed to a height of not less than 36 inches from the floor or the operator's platform. A safety belt and lifeline shall be worn by workmen when working at or near the spout unless the spout is guarded. The lifeline shall be short enough to prevent workers from falling into the chipper.
Hog mills shall be so designed and arranged that from no position on the rim of the chute shall the distance to the cutter knives be less than 40 inches.
Hog feed chutes shall be provided with suitable and approved baffles, which shall minimize material from being thrown from the mill.
Employees feeding hog mills shall be provided with safety belts and lines unless guarded.
Bins, bunkers, hoppers, and fuel houses
Guarding. Open bins, bunkers, and hoppers whose upper edges extend less than 3 feet above working level shall be equipped with standard handrails and toe boards, or have their tops covered by a substantial grill or grating with openings small enough to prevent a man from falling through.
Use of wheeled equipment to load bins. Where automotive or other wheeled equipment is used to move materials into bins, bunkers, and hoppers, adequate guard rails shall be installed along each side of the runway, and a substantial bumper stop provided when necessary.
Exits, lighting, and safety devices. Fuel houses and bins shall have adequate exits and lighting, and all necessary safety devices shall be provided and shall be used by persons entering these structures.
Walkways. Where needed, fuel houses and bins shall have a standard railed platform or walkway near the top.
Ropes, cables, slings, and chains
Safe usage. Ropes, cables, slings, and chains shall be used in accordance with safe use practices recommended by the manufacturer or within safe limits recommended by the equipment manufacturer when used in conjunction with it.
Hooks. No open hook shall be used in rigging to lift any load where there is hazard from relieving the tension on the hook from the load or hook catching or fouling.
Work by qualified persons. Installation, inspection, maintenance, repair, and testing of ropes, cables, slings, and chains shall be done only by persons qualified to do such work.
Slings. Proper storage shall be provided for slings while not in use.
Ropes or cables.
Wire rope or cable shall be inspected when installed and once each week thereafter, when in use. It shall be removed from hoisting or load-carrying service when kinked or when one of the following conditions exists:
When three broken wires are found in one lay of 6 by 6 wire rope.
When six broken wires are found in one lay of 6 by 19 wire rope.
When nine broken wires are found in one lay of 6 by 37 wire rope.
When eight broken wires are found in one lay of 8 by 19 wire rope.
When marked corrosion appears.
Wire rope of a type not described herein shall be removed from service when 4 percent of the total number of wires composing such rope are found to be broken in one lay.
Wire rope removed from service due to defects shall be plainly marked or identified as being unfit for further use on cranes, hoists, and other load-carrying devices.
The ratio between the rope diameter and the drum, block, sheave, or pulley tread diameter shall be such that the rope will adjust itself to the bend without excessive wear, deformation, or injury. In no case shall the safe value of drums, blocks, sheaves, or pulleys be reduced when replacing such items unless compensating changes are made for rope used and for safe loading limits.
Drums, sheaves, and pulleys. Drums, sheaves, and pulleys shall be smooth and free from surface defects liable to injure rope. Drums, sheaves, or pulleys having eccentric bores or cracked hubs, spokes, or flanges shall be removed from service.
Connections. Connections, fittings, fastenings, and other parts used in connection with ropes and cables shall be of good quality and of proper size and strength, and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
Socketing, splicing, and seizing.
Socketing, splicing, and seizing of cables shall be performed only by qualified persons.
All eye splices shall be made in an approved manner and wire rope thimbles of proper size shall be fitted in the eye, except that in slings the use of thimbles shall be optional.
Wire rope clips attached with U-bolts shall have these bolts on the dead or short end of the rope. The U-bolt nuts shall be retightened immediately after initial load carrying use and at frequent intervals thereafter.
When a wedge socket-type fastening is used, the dead or short end of the cable shall be clipped with a U-bolt or otherwise made secure against loosening.
Fittings. Hooks, shackles, rings, pad eyes, and other fittings that show excessive wear or that have been bent, twisted, or otherwise damaged shall be removed from service.
Running lines. Running lines of hoisting equipment located within 6 feet 6 inches of the ground or working level shall be boxed off or otherwise guarded, or the operating area shall be restricted.
Number of wraps on drum. There shall be not less than two full wraps of hoisting cable on the drum of cranes and hoists at all times of operation.
Drum flanges. Drums shall have a flange at each end to prevent the cable from slipping off.
Sheave guards. Bottom sheaves shall be protected by close fitting guards to prevent cable from jumping the sheave.
Preventing abrasion. The reeving of a rope shall be so arranged as to minimize chafing or abrading while in use.
Chains used in load carrying service shall be inspected before initial use and weekly thereafter.
Chain shall be normalized or annealed periodically as recommended by the manufacturer.
If at any time any 3-foot length of chain is found to have stretched one-third the length of a link it shall be discarded.
Bolts or nails shall not be placed between two links to shorten or join chains.
Broken chains shall not be spliced by inserting a bolt between two links with the head of the bolt and nut sustaining the load, or by passing one link through another and inserting a bolt or nail to hold it.
Fiber rope.
Frozen fiber rope shall not be used in load carrying service.
Fiber rope that has been subjected to acid or excessive heat shall not be used for load carrying purposes.
Fiber rope shall be protected from abrasion by padding where it is fastened or drawn over square corners or sharp or rough surfaces.
Mechanical stackers and unstackers.
Lumber lifting devices. Lumber lifting devices on all stackers shall be designed and arranged so as to minimize the possibility of lumber falling from such devices.
Blocking hoisting platform. Means shall be provided to positively block the hoisting platform when employees must go beneath the stacker or unstacker hoist.
Identifying controls. Every manually operated control switch shall be properly identified and so located as to be readily accessible to the operator.
Locking main control switches. Main control switches shall be so designed that they can be locked in the open position.
Guarding side openings. The hoistway side openings at the top level of the stacker and unstacker shall be protected by enclosures of standard railings.
Guarding hoistway openings. When the hoist platform or top of the load is below the working platform, the hoistway openings shall be guarded.
Guarding lower landing area. The lower landing area of stackers and unstackers shall be guarded by enclosures that prevent entrance to the area or pit below the hoist platform. Entrances should be protected by electrically interlocked gates which, when open, will disconnect the power and set the hoist brakes. When the interlock is not installed, other positive means of protecting the entrance shall be provided.
Inspection. Every stacker and unstacker shall be inspected at frequent intervals and all defective parts shall be immediately repaired or replaced.
Cleaning pits. Safe means of entrance and exit shall be provided to permit cleaning of pits.
Preventing entry to hazardous area. Where the return of trucks from unstacker to stacker is by mechanical power or gravity, adequate signs, warning devices, or barriers shall be erected to prevent entry into the hazardous area.
Lumber piling and storage
Pile foundations. In stacking units of lumber, pile foundations shall be designed and arranged to support maximum loads without sinking, sagging, or permitting the piles to topple. In unit package piles, substantial bolsters or unit separators shall be placed between each package directly over the stickers.
Stacking dissimilar unit packages. Long units of lumber shall not be stacked upon shorter packages except where a stable pile can be made with the use of package separators.
Unstable piles. Piles of lumber which have become unstable shall be immediately made safe, or the area into which they might fall shall be fenced or barricaded and employees prohibited from entering it.
Stickers. Unit packages of lumber shall be provided with stickers as necessary to insure stability under ordinary operating conditions.
Sticker alignment. Stickers shall extend the full width of the package, shall be uniformly spaced, and shall be aligned one above the other. Stickers may be lapped with a minimum overlapping of 12 inches. Stickers shall not protrude more than 2 inches beyond the sides of the package.
Pile height. The height of unit package piles shall be dependent on the dimensions of the packages and shall be such as to provide stability under normal operating conditions. Adjacent lumber piles may be tied together with separators to increase stability.
Lumber loading. Loads shall be built and secured to insure stability in transit.
Guying. If the burner stack is not self-supporting, it shall be guyed or otherwise supported.
Runway. The conveyor runway to the burner shall be equipped with a standard handrail. If the runway crosses a roadway or thoroughfare, standard toe boards shall be provided in addition.
Scope. Vehicles shall include all mobile equipment normally used in sawmill, planing mill, storage, shipping, and yard operations.
Warning signals and spark arrestors. All vehicles shall be equipped with audible warning signals and where practicable shall have spark arrestors.
Lights. All vehicles operated in the dark or in poorly lighted areas shall be equipped with head and tail lights.
Overhead guard. All vehicles operated in areas where overhead hazards exist shall be equipped with an approved overhead guard. See American National Standard Safety Code for Powered Industrial Trucks, B56.1—1969, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.
Platform guard. Where the operator is exposed to hazard from backing the vehicle into objects, an approved platform guard shall be provided and so arranged as to not impede exit of driver from vehicle.
Operation in buildings. Vehicles powered by internal combustion engines shall not operate in buildings unless the buildings are adequately ventilated.
Load limits. No vehicle shall be operated with loads exceeding its safe load capacity.
Brakes. All vehicles shall be equipped with brakes capable of holding and controlling the vehicle and capacity load upon any incline or grade over which they may be operated.
Carriers shall be so designed and constructed that the operator's field of vision shall not be unnecessarily restricted.
Carriers shall be provided with an access ladder or equivalent.
Lumber hauling trucks.
On trucks where movement of load on stopping would endanger the operator, a substantial bulkhead shall be installed behind the operator's seat. This shall extend to the top of the operator's compartment.
Stakes, stake pockets, racks, tighteners, and binders shall provide adequate means to secure the load against any movement during transit.
Where rollers are used, at least two shall be equipped with locks which shall be locked when supporting loads during transit.
Traffic control and flow
Hazardous crossings. Railroad tracks and other hazardous crossings shall be plainly posted.
Restricted overhead clearance. All areas of restricted side or overhead clearance shall be plainly marked.
Pickup and unloading points. Pickup and unloading points and paths for lumber packages on conveyors and transfers and other areas where accurate spotting is required, shall be plainly marked and wheel stops provided where necessary.
Aisles, passageways, and roadways. Aisles, passageways, and roadways shall be sufficiently wide to provide safe side clearance. One-way aisles may be used for two-way traffic if suitable turnouts are provided.
Log handling, sorting, and storage
Log unloading methods, equipment, and facilities
Unloading methods.
Stakes and chocks which trip shall be constructed in such manner that the tripping mechanism that releases the stake or chocks is activated at the opposite side of the load being tripped.
Binders on logs shall not be released prior to securing with unloading lines or other unloading device.
Binders shall be released only from the side on which the unloader operates, except when released by remote control devices or except when person making release is protected by racks or stanchions or other equivalent means.
Loads on which a binder is fouled by the unloading machine shall have an extra binder or metal band of equal strength placed around the load, or the load shall be otherwise secured so the fouled binder can be safely removed.
Unloading equipment and facilities.
Machines used for hoisting, unloading, or lowering logs shall be equipped with brakes capable of controlling or holding the maximum load in midair.
The lifting cylinders of all hydraulically operated log handling machines shall be equipped with a positive device for preventing the uncontrolled lowering of the load or forks in case of a failure in the hydraulic system.
A limit switch shall be installed on powered log handling machines to prevent the lift arms from traveling too far in the event the control switch is not released in time.
When forklift-type machines are used to load trailers, a means of securing the loading attachment to the fork shall be installed and used.
A-frames and similar log unloading devices shall have adequate height to provide safe clearance for swinging loads and to provide for adequate crotch lines and spreader bar devices.
Log handling machines used to stack logs or lift loads above operator's head shall be equipped with adequate overhead protection.
All mobile log handling machines shall be equipped with headlights and backup lights.
Unloading devices shall be equipped with a horn or other plainly audible signaling device.
Movement of unloading equipment shall be coordinated by audible or hand signals when operator's vision is impaired or operating in the vicinity of other employees.
Wood pike poles shall be made of straight-grained, select material. Metal or conductive pike poles shall not be used around exposed energized electrical conductors. Defective, blunt, or dull pike poles shall not be used.
Log unloading and storage areas
Log dumps, booms, ponds, or storage areas used at night shall be illuminated in accordance with the requirements of American National Standard A11.1-1965 (R-1970) Standard Practice for Industrial Lighting, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.
Log unloading areas shall be arranged and maintained to provide a safe working area.
Where skids are used, space adequate to clear a man's body shall be maintained between the top of the skids and the ground.
Signs prohibiting unauthorized foot or vehicle traffic in log unloading and storage areas shall be posted.
Water log dumps.
Ungrounded electrically powered hoists using handheld remote control in grounded locations, such as log dumps or mill log lifts, shall be actuated by circuits operating at less than 50 volts to ground.
Roadbeds at log dumps shall be of sufficient width and evenness to insure safe operation of equipment.
An adequate brow log or skid timbers or the equivalent shall be provided where necessary. Railroad-type dumps, when located where logs are dumped directly into water or where entire loads are lifted from vehicle, may be exempted providing such practice does not create a hazardous exposure of personnel or equipment.
Unloading lines shall be arranged so that it is not necessary for the employees to attach them from the pond or dump side of the load except when entire loads are lifted from the log-transporting vehicle.
Unloading lines, crotch lines, or equally effective means shall be arranged and used in a manner to minimize the possibility of any log from swinging or rolling back.
When logs are unloaded with peavys or similar manual methods, means shall be provided and used that will minimize the danger from rolling or swinging logs.
Guardrails, walkways, and standard handrails shall be installed
Approved life rings (see: 46 CFR 160.099 and 46 CFR 160.050) with line attached and maintained to retain buoyancy shall be provided.
Log booms and ponds.
Walkways and floats shall be installed and securely anchored to provide adequate passageway for employees.
All regular boom sticks and foot logs shall be reasonably straight, with no protruding knots and bark, and shall be capable of supporting, above the water line at either end, the weight of an employee and equipment.
Permanent cable swifters shall be so arranged that it will not be necessary to roll boom sticks in order to attach or detach them.
Periodic inspection of cable or dogging lines shall be made to determine when repair or removal from service is necessary.
The banks of the log pond in the vicinity of the log haul shall be reinforced to prevent caving in.
Artificial log ponds shall be drained, cleaned, and refilled when unhealthy stagnation or pollution occurs.
Employees whose duties require them to work from boats, floating logs, boom sticks, or walkways along or on water shall be provided with and shall wear appropriate buoyant devices while performing such duties.
Stiff booms shall be two float logs wide secured by boom chains or other connecting devices, and of a width adequate for the working needs. Walking surfaces shall be free of loose material and maintained in good repair.
Boom sticks shall be fastened together with adequate crossties or couplings.
Floating donkeys or other power-driven machinery used on booms shall be placed on a raft or float with enough buoyancy to keep the deck well above water.
All sorting gaps shall have a substantial stiff boom on each side.
Pond boats and rafts. The applicable provisions of the Standard for Fire Protection for Motorcraft, NFPA No. 302—1968, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6, shall be complied with.
Decks of pond boats shall be covered with nonslip material.
Powered pond boats or rafts shall be provided with at least one approved fire extinguisher, and one lifering with line attached.
Boat fuel shall be transported and stored in approved safety containers. Refer to §1910.155(c)(3) for definition of approved.
Inspection, maintenance, and ventilation of the bilge area shall be provided to prevent accumulation of highly combustible materials.
Adequate ventilation shall be provided for the cabin area on enclosed cabin-type boats to prevent accumulation of harmful gases or vapors.
Dry deck storage.
Dry deck storage areas shall be kept orderly and shall be maintained in a condition which is conducive to safe operation of mobile equipment.
Logs shall be stored in a safe and orderly manner, and roadways and traffic lanes shall be maintained at a width adequate for safe travel of log handling equipment.
Logs shall be arranged to minimize the chance of accidentally rolling from the deck.
Log hauls and slips.
Walkways along log hauls shall have a standard handrail on the outer edge, and cleats or other means to assure adequate footing and enable employees to walk clear of the log chute.
Log haul bull chains or cable shall be designed, installed, and maintained to provide adequate safety for the work need.
Log haul gear and bull chain drive mechanism shall be guarded.
Substantial troughs for the return strand of log haul chains shall be provided over passageways.
Log haul controls shall be located and identified to operate from a position where the operator will, at all times, be in the clear of logs, machinery, lines, and rigging. In operations where control is by lever exposed to incoming logs, the lever shall be arranged to operate the log haul only when moved toward the log slip or toward the log pond.
A positive stop shall be installed on all log hauls to prevent logs from traveling too far ahead in the mill.
Overhead protection shall be provided for employees working below logs being moved to the log deck.
Log wells shall be provided with safeguards to minimize the possibility of logs rolling back into well from log deck.
Log decks
Access. Safe access to the head rig shall be provided.
Stops. Log decks shall be provided with adequate stops, chains, or other safeguards to prevent logs from rolling down the deck onto the carriage or its runway.
Barricade. A barricade or other positive stop of sufficient strength to stop any log shall be erected between the sawyer's stand and the log deck.
Loose chains. Loose chains from overhead canting devices or other equipment shall not be allowed to hang over the log deck in such manner as to strike employees.
Swing saws. Swing saws on log decks shall be equipped with a barricade and stops for protection of employees who may be on the opposite side of the log haul chute.
Drag saws. Where reciprocating log cutoff saws (drag saws) are provided, they shall not project into walkway or aisle.
Circular cutoff saws. Circular log bucking or cutoff saws shall be so located and guarded as to allow safe entrance to and exit from the building.
Entrance doorway. Where the cutoff saw partially blocks the entrance from the log haul runway, the entrance shall be guarded.
Mechanical barkers
Rotary barkers. Rotary barking devices shall be so guarded as to protect employees from flying chips, bark, or other extraneous material.
Elevating ramp. If an elevating ramp or gate is used, it shall be provided with a safety chain, hook, or other means of suspension while employees are underneath.
Area around barkers. The hazardous area around ring barkers and their conveyors shall be fenced off or posted as a prohibited area for unauthorized persons.
Enclosing hydraulic barkers. Hydraulic barkers shall be enclosed with strong baffles at the inlet and outlet. The operator shall be protected by adequate safety glass or equivalent.
Holddown rolls. Holddown rolls shall be installed at the infeed and outfeed sections of mechanical ring barkers to control the movement of logs.
Log breakdown and related machinery and facilities
Log carriages and carriage runways
Bumpers. A substantial stop or bumper with adequate shock-absorptive qualities shall be installed at each end of the carriage runway.
Footing. Rider-type carriages shall be floored to provide secure footing and a firm working platform for the block setter.
Sheave housing. Sheaves on rope-driven carriages shall be guarded at floor line with substantial housings.
Carriage control. A positive means shall be provided to prevent unintended movement of the carriage. This may involve a control locking device, a carriage tie-down, or both.
Barriers and warning signs. A barrier shall be provided to prevent employees from entering the space necessary for travel of the carriage, with headblocks fully receded, for the full length and extreme ends of carriage runways. Warning signs shall be posted at possible entry points to this area.
Overhead clearance. For a rider-type carriage adequate overhead clear space above the carriage deck shall be provided for the full carriage runway length.
Sweeping devices. Carriage track sweeping devices shall be used to keep track rails clear of debris.
Dogs. Dogging devices shall be adequate to secure logs, cants, or boards, during sawing operations.
Head saws
Band head saws.
Band head saws shall not be operated at speeds in excess of those recommended by the manufacturer
Band head saws shall be thoroughly inspected for cracks, splits, broken teeth, and other defects. A bandsaw with a crack greater than one-tenth the width of the saw shall not be placed in service until width of saw is reduced to eliminate crack, until cracked section is removed, or crack development is stopped.
Provisions shall be made for alerting and warning employees before starting band head saws, and measures shall be taken to insure that all persons are in the clear.
Bandsaw wheels.
No bandsaw wheel shall be run at a peripheral speed in excess of that recommended by the manufacturer. The manufacturer's recommended maximum speed shall be stamped in plainly legible figures on some portion of the wheel.
Band head saw wheels shall be subjected to monthly inspections. Hubs, spokes, rims, bolts, and rivets shall be thoroughly examined in the course of such inspections. A loose or damaged hub, a rim crack, or loose spokes shall make the wheel unfit for service.
Band wheels shall be completely encased or guarded, except for a portion of the upper wheel immediately around the point where the blade leaves the wheel, to permit operator to observe movement of equipment. Necessary ventilating and observation ports may be permitted. Substantial doors or gates are allowed for repair, lubrication, and saw changes; such doors or gates shall be closed securely during operation. Band head rigs shall be equipped with a saw catcher or guard of substantial construction.
Single circular head saws.
Circular head saws shall not be operated at speeds in excess of those specified by the manufacturer. Maximum speed shall be etched on the saw.
Circular head saws shall be equipped with safety guides which can be readily adjusted without use of hand tools.
The upper saw of a double circular mill shall be provided with a substantial hood or guard. A screen or other suitable device shall be placed so as to protect the sawyer from flying particles.
All circular sawmills where live rolls are not used behind the head saw shall be equipped with a spreader wheel or splitter.
Twin circular head saws. Twin circular head saws rigs such as scrag saws shall meet the specifications for single circular head saws in paragraph (e)(2)(iii) of this section where applicable.
Whole-log sash gang saws (Swedish gangs).
Cranks, pitman rods, and other moving parts shall be adequately guarded.
Feed rolls shall be enclosed by a cover over the top, front, and open ends except where guarded by location. Drive mechanism to feed rolls shall be enclosed.
Carriage cradles of whole-log sash gang saws (Swedish gangs), shall be of adequate height to prevent logs from kicking out while being loaded.
Band resaws. Band resaws shall meet the specifications for band head saws as required by paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section.
Circular gang resaws.
Banks of circular gang resaws shall be guarded by a hood.
Circular gang resaws shall be provided with safety fingers or other antikickback devices.
Circular gang resaws shall not be operated at speeds exceeding those recommended by the manufacturer.
Feed rolls shall be guarded.
Each circular gang resaw, except self-feed saws with a live roll or wheel at back of saw, shall be provided with spreaders.
Sash gang resaws. Sash gang resaws shall meet the safety specifications of whole-log sash gang saws in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (e)(2)(v) of this section.
Trimmer saws
Maximum speed. Trimmer saws shall not be run at peripheral speeds in excess of those recommended by the manufacturer.
Trimmer saws shall be guarded in front by adequate baffles to protect against flying debris and they shall be securely bolted to a substantial frame. These guards for a series of saws shall be set as close to the top of the trimmer table as is practical.
The end saws on trimmer shall be guarded.
The rear of trimmer saws shall have a guard the full width of the saws and as much wider as practical.
Safety stops. Automatic trimmer saws shall be provided with safety stops or hangers to prevent saws from dropping on table.
Where vertical arbor edger saws are located ahead of the main saw, they shall be so guarded that an employee cannot contact any part of the edger saw from his normal position.
Edgers shall not be located in the main roll case behind the head saws.
The top and the openings in end and side frames of edgers shall be adequately guarded and gears and chains shall be fully housed. Guards may be hinged or otherwise arranged to permit oiling and the removal of saws.
All edgers shall be equipped with pressure feed rolls.
Pressure feed rolls on edgers shall be guarded against accidental contact.
Antikickback devices.
Edgers shall be provided with safety fingers or other approved methods of preventing kickbacks or guarding against them. A barricade in line with the edger, if properly fenced off, may be used if safety fingers are not feasible to install.
A controlling device shall be installed and located so that the operator can stop the feed mechanism without releasing the tension of the pressure rolls.
Operating speed of live rolls. Live rolls and tailing devices in back of edger shall operate at a speed not less than the speed of the edger feed rolls.
All cutting heads shall be guarded.
Side head hoods shall be of sufficient height to safeguard the head setscrew.

Pressure feed rolls and "pineapples" shall be guarded.

Levers or controls shall be so arranged or guarded as to reduce the possibility of accidental operation.
Dry kilns and facilities
Kiln foundations. Dry kilns shall be constructed upon solid foundations to prevent tracks from sagging
Passageways. A passageway shall be provided to give adequate clearance on at least one side or in the center of end-piled kilns and on two sides of cross-piled kilns.
Main kiln doors.
Main kiln doors shall be provided with a method of holding them open while kiln is being loaded.
Counterweights on vertical lift doors shall be boxed or otherwise guarded.
Adequate means shall be provided to firmly secure main doors, when they are disengaged from carriers and hangers, to prevent toppling.
Escape doors.
If operating procedures require access to kilns, kilns shall be provided with escape doors that operate easily from the inside, swing in the direction of exit, and are located in or near the main door at the end of the passageway.
Escape doors shall be of adequate height and width to accommodate an average size man.
Pits. Pits shall be well ventilated, drained, and lighted, and shall be large enough to safely accommodate the kiln operator together with operating devices such as valves, dampers, damper rods, and traps.
Steam mains. All high-pressure steam mains located in or adjacent to an operating pit shall be covered with heat-insulating material.
Ladders. A fixed ladder complying with the requirements of subpart D of this part, or other adequate means, shall be provided to permit access to the roof. Where controls and machinery are mounted on the roof, a permanent stairway with standard handrail shall be installed in accordance with the requirements in subpart D.
Chocks. A means shall be provided for chocking or blocking cars.
Kiln tender room. A warm room shall be provided for kiln employees to stay in during cold weather after leaving a hot kiln.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 40 FR 23073, May 28, 1975; 43 FR 49751, Oct. 24, 1978; 43 FR 51760, Nov. 7, 1978; 53 FR 12123, Apr. 12, 1988; 55 FR 32015, Aug. 6, 1990; 61 FR 9227, March 7, 1996; 63 FR 33450, June 18, 1998; 70 FR 53929, Sept. 13, 2005; 76 FR 80739, Dec. 27, 2011; 81 83006, Nov. 18, 2016]