- Part Number:1926
- Part Number Title:Safety and Health Regulations for Construction
- Subpart:1926 Subpart F
- Subpart Title:Fire Protection and Prevention
- Standard Number:
- Title:Flammable liquids.
- GPO Source:
Indoor storage of flammable liquids.
No more than 25 gallons of flammable liquids shall be stored in a room outside of an approved storage cabinet. For storage of liquefied petroleum gas, see §1926.153.
Cabinets shall be labeled in conspicuous lettering, "Flammable-Keep Away from Open Flames."
Storage in inside storage rooms shall comply with Table F-2 following:
|Fire protection provided||Fire resistance||Maximum size||Total allowable quantities gals./sq. ft./floor area|
|Yes||2 hrs||500 sq. ft||10|
|No||2 hrs||500 sq. ft||4|
|Yes||1 hr||150 sq. ft||5|
|No||1 hr||150 sq. ft||2|
NOTE: Fire protection system shall be sprinkler, water spray, carbon dioxide or other system approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory for this purpose.
Electrical wiring and equipment located in inside storage rooms shall be approved for Class I, Division 1, Hazardous Locations. For definition of Class I, Division 1, Hazardous Locations, see §1926.449.
Quantity. The quantity of flammable liquids kept in the vicinity of spraying operations shall be the minimum required for operations and should ordinarily not exceed a supply for 1 day or one shift. Bulk storage of portable containers of flammable liquids shall be in a separate, constructed building detached from other important buildings or cut off in a standard manner.
Storage outside buildings.
Outdoor portable tank storage:
Fire control for flammable liquid storage.
Handling liquids at point of final use.
Service and refueling areas.
Scope. This section applies to the handling, storage, and use of flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or below 199.4 ºF (93 ºC). This section does not apply to:
Tank storage -
Design and construction of tanks -
Unlined concrete tanks may be used for storing flammable liquids having a gravity of 40° API or heavier. Concrete tanks with special lining may be used for other services provided the design is in accordance with sound engineering practice.
Special engineering consideration shall be required if the specific gravity of the liquid to be stored exceeds that of water or if the tanks are designed to contain flammable liquids at a liquid temperature below 0 °F.
Metal tanks shall be welded, riveted, and caulked, brazed, or bolted, or constructed by use of a combination of these methods. Filler metal used in brazing shall be nonferrous metal or an alloy having a melting point above 1000 °F. and below that of the metal joined.
Low pressure tanks.
This paragraph may be used for operating pressures not exceeding 1 p.s.i.g.
Provisions for internal corrosion. When tanks are not designed in accordance with the American Petroleum Institute, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, or the Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc.'s, standards, or if corrosion is anticipated beyond that provided for in the design formulas used, additional metal thickness or suitable protective coatings or linings shall be provided to compensate for the corrosion loss expected during the design life of the tank.
Installation of outside aboveground tanks.
Spacing (shell-to-shell) between aboveground tanks.
Normal venting for aboveground tanks.
shall be at least as large as the filling or withdrawal connection, whichever is larger but in no case less than 1 ¼ inch (3.175 cm) normal inside diameter.
Exemption: Tanks of 3,000 bbls (barrels) (84 m(3)) capacity or less containing crude petroleum in crude-producing areas; and, outside aboveground atmospheric tanks under 1,000 gallons (3,785 L) capacity containing other than Category 1 flammable liquids may have open vents. (See paragraph (i)(2)(vi)(B) of this section.)
Emergency relief venting for fire exposure for aboveground tanks.
In a vertical tank the construction referred to in paragraph (i)(2)(v)(A) of this section may take the form of a floating roof, lifter roof, a weak roof-to-shell seam, or other approved pressure relieving construction. The weak roof-to-shell seam shall be constructed to fail preferential to any other seam.
Where entire dependence for emergency relief is placed upon pressure relieving devices, the total venting capacity of both normal and emergency vents shall be enough to prevent rupture of the shell or bottom of the tank if vertical, or of the shell or heads if horizontal. If unstable liquids are stored, the effects of heat or gas resulting from polymerization, decomposition, condensation, or self-reactivity shall be taken into account. The total capacity of both normal and emergency venting devices shall be not less than that derived from Table F-10 except as provided in paragraph (i)(2)(v)(E) or (F) of this section. Such device may be a self-closing manhole cover, or one using long bolts that permit the cover to lift under internal pressure, or an additional or larger relief valve or valves. The wetted area of the tank shall be calculated on the basis of 55 percent of the total exposed area of a sphere or spheroid, 75 percent of the total exposed area of a horizontal tank and the first 30 feet (9.12 m) above grade of the exposed shell area of a vertical tank.
|Square feet (m2)||CFH (m3H)||Square feet (m2)||CFH (m3H)||Square feet (m2)||CFH (m3H)|
|20 (1.84)||21,100 (590.8)||200 (18.4)||211,000 (5,908)||1,000 (90.2)||524,000 (14,672)|
|30 (2.76)||31,600 (884.8)||250 (23)||239,000 (6,692)||1,200 (110.4)||557,000 (15,596)|
|40 (3.68)||42,100 (1,178.8)||300 (27.6)||265,000 (7,420)||1,400 (128.8)||587,000 (16,436)|
|50 (4.6)||52,700 (1,475.6)||350 (32.2)||288,000 (8,064)||1,600 (147.2)||614,000 (17,192)|
|60 (5.52)||63,200 (1,769.6)||400 (36.8)||312,000 (8,736)||1,800 (165.6)||639,000 (17,892)|
|70 (6.44)||73,700 (2,063.6)||500 (46)||354,000 (9,912)||2,000 (180.4)||662,000 (18,536)|
|80 (7.36)||84,200 (2,357.6)||600 (55.2)||392,000 (10,976)||2,400 (220.8)||704,000 (19,712)|
|90 (8.28)||94,800 (2,654.4)||700 (64.4)||428,000 (11,984)||2,800 (257.6)||742,000 (20,776)|
|100 (9.2)||105,000 (2,940)||800 (73.6)||462,000 (12,936)||and|
|120 (11.04)||126,000 (3,528)||900 (82.8)||493,000 (13,804)||over|
|140 (12.88)||147,000 (4,116)||1,000(90.2)||524,000(14,672)|
|160 (14.72)||168,000 (4,704)|
|180 (16.56)||190,000 (5,320)|
For tanks and storage vessels designed for pressure over 1 p.s.i.g., the total rate of venting shall be determined in accordance with Table F-10, except that when the exposed wetted area of the surface is greater than 2,800 square feet (257.6 m2), the total rate of venting shall be calculated by the following formula:
CFH = 1,107A0.82
CFH = Venting requirement, in cubic feet (meters) of free air per hour.
A = Exposed wetted surface, in square feet (m2).
NOTE: The foregoing formula is based on Q = 21,000A0.82.
The total emergency relief venting capacity for any specific stable liquid may be determined by the following formula:
V = 1337 ÷ by L √ M
V = Cubic feet (meters) of free air per hour from Table F-10.
L = Latent heat of vaporization of specific liquid in B.t.u. per pound.
M = Molecular weight of specific liquids.
The required airflow rate of paragraph (i)(2)(v)(C) or (E) of this section may be multiplied by the appropriate factor listed in the following schedule when protection is provided as indicated. Only one factor may be used for any one tank.
0.5 for drainage in accordance with paragraph (i)(2)(vii)(B) of this section for tanks over 200 square feet (18.4 m2) of wetted area.
0.3 for approved water spray.
0.3 for approved insulation.
0.15 for approved water spray with approved insulation.
Each commercial tank venting device shall have stamped on it the opening pressure, the pressure at which the valve reaches the full open position, and the flow capacity at the latter pressure, expressed in cubic feet (meters) per hour of air at 60 °F. (15.55 °C) and at a pressure of 14.7 p.s.i.a.
The flow capacity of tank venting devices 12 inches (30.48 cm) and smaller in nominal pipe size shall be determined by actual test of each type and size of vent. These flow tests may be conducted by the manufacturer if certified by a qualified impartial observer, or may be conducted by an outside agency. The flow capacity of tank venting devices larger than 12 inches (30.48 cm) nominal pipe size, including manhole covers with long bolts or equivalent, may be calculated provided that the opening pressure is actually measured, the rating pressure and corresponding free orifice area are stated, the word "calculated" appears on the nameplate, and the computation is based on a flow coefficient of 0.5 applied to the rated orifice area.
Vent piping for aboveground tanks.
Drainage, dikes, and walls for aboveground tanks -
Drainage and diked areas. The area surrounding a tank or a group of tanks shall be provided with drainage as in paragraph (i)(2)(vii)(B) of this section, or shall be diked as provided in (i)(2)(vii)(C) of this section, to prevent accidental discharge of liquid from endangering adjoining property or reaching waterways.
Drainage. Where protection of adjoining property or waterways is by means of a natural or manmade drainage system, such systems shall comply with the following:
Diked areas. Where protection of adjoining property or waterways is accomplished by retaining the liquid around the tank by means of a dike, the volume of the diked area shall comply with the following requirements:
Except as provided in paragraph (i)(2)(vii)(C)(2) of this section, the volumetric capacity of the diked area shall not be less than the greatest amount of liquid that can be released from the largest tank within the diked area, assuming a full tank. The capacity of the diked area enclosing more than one tank shall be calculated by deducting the volume of the tanks other than the largest tank below the height of the dike.
Tank openings other than vents for aboveground tanks.
Installation of underground tanks -
Location. Evacuation for underground storage tanks shall be made with due care to avoid undermining of foundations of existing structures. Underground tanks or tanks under buildings shall be so located with respect to existing building foundations and supports that the loads carried by the latter cannot be transmitted to the tank. The distance from any part of a tank storing Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ºF (37.8 ºC), to the nearest wall of any basement or pit shall be not less than 1 foot (0.304 m), and to any property line that may be built upon, not less than 3 feet (0.912 m). The distance from any part of a tank storing Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 ºF (37.8 ºC) or Category 4 flammable liquids to the nearest wall of any basement, pit or property line shall be not less than 1 foot (0.304 m).
Depth and cover. Underground tanks shall be set on firm foundations and surrounded with at least 6 inches (15.24 cm) of noncorrosive, inert materials such as clean sand, earth, or gravel well tamped in place. The tank shall be placed in the hole with care since dropping or rolling the tank into the hole can break a weld, puncture or damage the tank, or scrape off the protective coating of coated tanks. Tanks shall be covered with a minimum of 2 feet(0.608 m) of earth, or shall be covered with not less than 1 foot (0.304 m) of earth, on top of which shall be placed a slab of reinforced concrete not less than 4 inches (10.16 cm) thick. When underground tanks are, or are likely to be, subject to traffic, they shall be protected against damage from vehicles passing over them by at least 3 feet (0.912 m) of earth cover, or 18 inches (45.72 cm) of well-tamped earth, plus 6 inches (15.24 cm) of reinforced concrete or 8 inches (20.32 cm) of asphaltic concrete. When asphaltic or reinforced concrete paving is used as part of the protection, it shall extend at least 1 foot (0.304 m) horizontally beyond the outline of the tank in all directions.
Corrosion protection. Corrosion protection for the tank and its piping shall be provided by one or more of the following methods:
Size of vents. Each tank shall be vented through piping adequate in size to prevent blow-back of vapor or liquid at the fill opening while the tank is being filled. Vent pipes shall be not less than 1 1/4 inch (3.175 cm) nominal inside diameter.
|Maximum flow GPM (L)||Pipe length1|
|50 feet (15.2 m)||100 feet (30.4 m)||200 feet (60.8 m)|
|Inches (cm)||Inches (cm)||Inches (cm)|
|100 (378.5)||1¼ (3.175)||1¼ (3.175)||1¼ (3.175)|
|200 (757)||1¼ (3.175)||1¼ (3.175)||1¼ (3.175)|
|300 (1,135.5)||1¼ (3.175)||1¼ (3.175)||1½ (3.81)|
|400 (1,514)||1¼ (3.175)||1½ (3.81)||2 (5.08)|
|500 (1,892.5)||1½ (3.81)||1½ (3.81)||2 (5.08)|
|600 (2,271)||1½ (3.81)||2 (5.08)||2 (5.08)|
|700 (2,649.5)||2 (5.08)||2 (5.08)||2 (5.08)|
|800 (3,028)||2 (5.08)||2 (5.08)||3 (7.62)|
|900 (3,406.5)||2 (5.08)||2 (5.08)||3 (7.62)|
|1,000 (3,785)||2 (5.08)||2 (5.08)||3 (7.62)|
1 Vent lines of 50 feet (15.2 m), 100 feet (30.4 m), and 200 feet (60.8 m) of pipe plus 7 ells.
Tank openings other than vents.
Installation of tanks inside of buildings -
Location. Tanks shall not be permitted inside of buildings except as provided in paragraphs (e), (g), (h), or (i) of this section.
Vents. Vents for tanks inside of buildings shall be as provided in paragraphs (i)(2)(iv), (v), (vi)(B), and (3)(iv) of this section, except that emergency venting by the use of weak roof seams on tanks shall not be permitted. Vents shall discharge vapors outside the buildings.
Vent piping. Vent piping shall be constructed in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.
Tank openings other than vents.
Supports, foundations, and anchorage for all tank locations -
General. Tank supports shall be installed on firm foundations. Tank supports shall be of concrete, masonry, or protected steel. Single wood timber supports (not cribbing) laid horizontally may be used for outside aboveground tanks if not more than 12 inches (30.48 cm) high at their lowest point.
Fire resistance. Steel supports or exposed piling shall be protected by materials having a fire resistance rating of not less than 2 hours, except that steel saddles need not be protected if less than 12 inches (30.48 cm) high at their lowest point. Water spray protection or its equivalent may be used in lieu of fire-resistive materials to protect supports.
Spheres. The design of the supporting structure for tanks such as spheres shall receive special engineering consideration.
Load distribution. Every tank shall be so supported as to prevent the excessive concentration of loads on the supporting portion of the shell.
Foundations. Tanks shall rest on the ground or on foundations made of concrete, masonry, piling, or steel. Tank foundations shall be designed to minimize the possibility of uneven settling of the tank and to minimize corrosion in any part of the tank resting on the foundation.
Flood areas. Where a tank is located in an area that may be subjected to flooding, the applicable precautions outlined in this subdivision shall be observed.
In addition to the preceding requirements, each tank so located that more than 70 percent, but less than 100 percent, of its allowable liquid storage capacity will be submerged at the established maximum flood stage, shall be safeguarded by one of the following methods: Tank shall be raised, or its height shall be increased, until its top extends above the maximum flood stage a distance equivalent to 30 percent or more of its allowable liquid storage capacity: Provided, however, That the submerged part of the tank shall not exceed two and one-half times the diameter. Or, as an alternative to the foregoing, adequate noncombustible structural guides, designed to permit the tank to float vertically without loss of product, shall be provided.
The strength of the structure shall be adequate to resist lateral movement of a tank subject to a horizontal force in any direction equivalent to not less than 25 pounds per square foot (1.05 kg m2) acting on the projected vertical cross-sectional area of the tank.
Where tanks are situated on exposed points or bends in a shoreline where swift currents in flood waters will be present, the structures shall be designed to withstand a unit force of not less than 50 pounds per square foot (2.1 kg m2).
Earthquake areas. In areas subject to earthquakes, the tank supports and connections shall be designed to resist damage as a result of such shocks.
Sources of ignition. In locations where flammable vapors may be present, precautions shall be taken to prevent ignition by eliminating or controlling sources of ignition. Sources of ignition may include open flames, lightning, smoking, cutting and welding, hot surfaces, frictional heat, sparks (static, electrical, and mechanical), spontaneous ignition, chemical and physical-chemical reactions, and radiant heat.
General. All tanks, whether shop built or field erected, shall be strength tested before they are placed in service in accordance with the applicable paragraphs of the code under which they were built. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code stamp, American Petroleum Institute (API) monogram, or the label of the Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., on a tank shall be evidence of compliance with this strength test. Tanks not marked in accordance with the above codes shall be strength tested before they are placed in service in accordance with good engineering principles and reference shall be made to the sections on testing in the codes listed in paragraphs (i)(1)(iii)(A), (iv)(B), or (v)(B) of this section.
Strength. When the vertical length of the fill and vent pipes is such that when filled with liquid the static head imposed upon the bottom of the tank exceeds 10 pounds per square inch (68.94 kPa), the tank and related piping shall be tested hydrostatically to a pressure equal to the static head thus imposed.
Tightness. In addition to the strength test called for in paragraphs (i)(7)(i) and (ii) of this section, all tanks and connections shall be tested for tightness. Except for underground tanks, this tightness test shall be made at operating pressure with air, inert gas, or water prior to placing the tank in service. In the case of field-erected tanks the strength test may be considered to be the test for tank tightness. Underground tanks and piping, before being covered, enclosed, or placed in use, shall be tested for tightness hydrostatically, or with air pressure at not less than 3 pounds per square inch (20.68 kPa) and not more than 5 pounds per square inch (34.47 kPa).
Repairs. All leaks or deformations shall be corrected in an acceptable manner before the tank is placed in service. Mechanical caulking is not permitted for correcting leaks in welded tanks except pinhole leaks in the roof.
Derated operations. Tanks to be operated at pressures below their design pressure may be tested by the applicable provisions of paragraphs (i)(7)(i) or (ii) of this section, based upon the pressure developed under full emergency venting of the tank.
Piping, valves, and fittings -
Design. The design (including selection of materials) fabrication, assembly, test, and inspection of piping systems containing flammable liquids shall be suitable for the expected working pressures and structural stresses. Conformity with the applicable provisions of Pressure Piping, ANSI B31 series and the provisions of this paragraph, shall be considered prima facie evidence of compliance with the foregoing provisions.
Exceptions. This paragraph does not apply to any of the following:
Definitions. As used in this paragraph, piping systems consist of pipe, tubing, flanges, bolting, gaskets, valves, fittings, the pressure containing parts of other components such as expansion joints and strainers, and devices which serve such purposes as mixing, separating, snubbing, distributing, metering, or controlling flow.
Materials for piping, valves, and fittings -
Required materials. Materials for piping, valves, or fittings shall be steel, nodular iron, or malleable iron, except as provided in paragraphs (j)(2)(ii), (iii) and (iv) of this section.
Exceptions. Materials other than steel, nodular iron, or malleable iron may be used underground, or if required by the properties of the flammable liquid handled. Material other than steel, nodular iron, or malleable iron shall be designed to specifications embodying principles recognized as good engineering practices for the material used.
Linings. Piping, valves, and fittings may have combustible or noncombustible linings.
Low-melting materials. When low-melting point materials such as aluminum and brass or materials that soften on fire exposure such as plastics, or non-ductile materials such as cast iron, are necessary, special consideration shall be given to their behavior on fire exposure. If such materials are used in above ground piping systems or inside buildings, they shall be suitably protected against fire exposure or so located that any spill resulting from the failure of these materials could not unduly expose persons, important buildings or structures or can be readily controlled by remote valves.
Pipe joints. Joints shall be made liquid tight. Welded or screwed joints or approved connectors shall be used. Threaded joints and connections shall be made up tight with a suitable lubricant or piping compound. Pipe joints dependent upon the friction characteristics of combustible materials for mechanical continuity of piping shall not be used inside buildings. They may be used outside of buildings above or below ground. If used above ground, the piping shall either be secured to prevent disengagement at the fitting or the piping system shall be so designed that any spill resulting from such disengagement could not unduly expose persons, important buildings or structures, and could be readily controlled by remote valves.
Supports. Piping systems shall be substantially supported and protected against physical damage and excessive stresses arising from settlement, vibration, expansion, or contraction.
Protection against corrosion. All piping for flammable liquids, both aboveground and underground, where subject to external corrosion, shall be painted or otherwise protected.
Valves. Piping systems shall contain a sufficient number of valves to operate the system properly and to protect the plant. Piping systems in connection with pumps shall contain a sufficient number of valves to control properly the flow of liquid in normal operation and in the event of physical damage. Each connection to pipelines, by which equipments such as tankcars or tank vehicles discharge liquids by means of pumps into storage tanks, shall be provided with a check valve for automatic protection against backflow if the piping arrangement is such that backflow from the system is possible.
Testing. All piping before being covered, enclosed, or placed in use shall be hydrostatically tested to 150 percent of the maximum anticipated pressure of the system, or pneumatically tested to 110 percent of the maximum anticipated pressure of the system, but not less than 5 pounds per square inch gage at the highest point of the system. This test shall be maintained for a sufficient time to complete visual inspection of all joints and connections, but for at least 10 minutes.
Marine service stations -
Tanks and pumps.
Tanks, and pumps not integral with the dispensing unit, shall be on shore or on a pier of the solid fill type, except as provided in paragraphs (k)(2)(ii) and (iii) of this section.
Where tanks are at an elevation which would produce gravity head on the dispensing unit, the tank outlet shall be equipped with a pressure control valve positioned adjacent to and outside the tank block valve specified in §1926.152(c)(8) of this section, so adjusted that liquid cannot flow by gravity from the tank in case of piping or hose failure.
Piping between shore tanks and dispensing units shall be as described in paragraph (k)(2)(iii) of this section, except that, where dispensing is from a floating structure, suitable lengths of oil-resistant flexible hose may be employed between the shore piping and the piping on the floating structure as made necessary by change in water level or shoreline.
|Extent of classified area|
|1||Any pit, box or space below grade level, any part of which is within the Division 1 or 2 classified area.|
|2||Up to 18 inches (45.72 cm) above grade level within a horizontal radius of 10 feet (3.04 m) from a loose fill connection and within a horizontal radius of 5 feet (1.52 M) from a tight fill connection.|
|Vent - Discharging upward.||1||Within 3 feet (0.912 m) of open end of vent, extending in all directions.|
|2||Area between 3 feet (0.912 m) and 5 feet (1.52 m) of open end of vent, extending in all directions.|
|1||Any pit, box or space below grade level, any part of which is within the Division 1 or 2 classified area.|
|Dispenser enclosure||1||The area 4 feet (1.216 m) vertically above base within the enclosure and 18 inches (45.72 cm) horizontally in all directions.|
|Outdoor.||2||Up to 18 inches (45.72 cm) above grade level within 20 feet (6.08 m) horizontally of any edge of enclosure.|
With mechanical ventilation.
|2||Up to 18 inches (45.72 cm) above grade level within 20 feet (6.08 m) horizontally of any edge of enclosure.|
|With gravity ventilation.||2||Up to 18 inches (45.72 cm) above grade or floor level within 25 feet (7.6 m) horizontally of any edge of enclosure.|
|Remote pump - Outdoor.||1||Any pit, box or space below grade level if any part is within a horizontal distance of 10 feet (3.04 m) from any edge of pump.|
|2||Within 3 feet (0.912 m) of any edge of pump, extending in all directions. Also up to 18 inches (45.72 cm) above grade level within 10 feet (3.04 m) horizontally from any edge of pump.|
|Remote pump - Indoor.||1||Entire area within any pit.|
|2||Within 5 feet (1.52 m) of any edge of pump, extending in all directions. Also up to 3 feet (3.04 m) above floor or grade level within 25 feet (6.08 m) horizontally from any edge of pump.|
|Lubrication or service room.||1||Entire area within any pit.|
|2||Area up to 18 inches (45.72 cm) above floor or grade level within entire lubrication room.|
|Dispenser for Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 ºF (37.8 ºC) 2 Within 3 feet (0.912 m) of any fill or dispensing point, extending in all directions. Special enclosure inside building per 1910.106(f)(1)(ii).||1||Entire enclosure.|
|Sales, storage and rest rooms.||(1)||If there is any opening to these rooms within the extent of a Division 1 area, the entire room shall be classified as Division 1.|
Definition; as used in this section: Marine service station shall mean that portion of a property where flammable liquids used as fuels are stored and dispensed from fixed equipment on shore, piers, wharves, or floating docks into the fuel tanks or self-propelled craft, and shall include all facilities used in connection therewith.
[44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 51 FR 25318, July 11, 1986; 58 FR 35162, June 30, 1993; 63 FR 33450, June 18, 1998; 77 FR 17891, March 26, 2012]