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1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

General Description

  • Synonyms: Symmetrical tetra-chloroethane; Acetylene tetrachloride; sym-Tetrachloroethane
  • OSHA IMIS Code Number: 2340
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 79-34-5
  • NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: KI8575000
  • Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 1702 151
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

  • OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
  • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 1 ppm, 6.9 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A3 - Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 1 ppm, 7 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens; Appendix C - Supplementary Exposure Limits (Chloroethanes)

Health Factors

  • Carcinogenic Classification:
  • NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 100 ppm
  • Potential Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain; tremors in fingers; jaundice, hepatitis, liver tenderness; dermatitis; leukocytosis (increased blood leukocytes); kidney damage, headache, dizziness, drowsiness, confusion, convulsions; kidney damage; [potential occupational carcinogen].
  • Health Effects: Cumulative liver and other organ damage (HE3); Mutagen/ Suspect carcinogen (HE2)
  • Affected Organs: Skin, liver, kidneys, CNS, GI tract
  • Notes:
    1. Liver damage by acute high-level exposure is thought to be mediated by a cytochrome P450-dependent formation of dichloroacetyl chloride, a very reactive metabolite.
    2. A P450-dependent activation of radiolabeled 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane was also reported for epithelial linings in mice, especially those of the respiratory tract (highest in the nasal olfactory mucosa) and upper alimentary tract, to which there was irreversible metabolite binding.
    3. Urinary metabolites of 1,1,2,2-tetra-chloroethane in mice include dichloroacetic acid (major metabolite), trichloroethanol, and trichloroacetic acid.
  • Literature Basis:
    • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane.
    • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane.
    • EPA Air Toxics Website: 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
    • Eriksson, C. and Brittebo, E.B.: Epithelial binding of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane in the respiratory and upper alimentary tract. Arch. Toxicol. 65(1): 10-14, 1991.
    • Halpert, J.: Cytochrome P-450-dependent covalent binding of 1,1,2,2,-tetrachloroethane in vitro. Drug Metab. Dispos. 10(5): 465-468, 1982.
    • No authors listed: 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane. IARC Monogr. Eval. Carcinog. Risks Hum. 71(Pt. 2): 817-827, 1999.
    • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 2163-2166.
  • Date Last Revised: 11/03/2005

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
  • Petroleum Base Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
  • analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
  • maximum volume: 10 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
  • current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
  • method reference: NIOSH Analytical Method (NIOSH 1019 (PDF))
  • method classification: Partially Validated
Wipe Sampling Method:
  • Charcoal pad
  • note: Seal in glass vial for shipment.

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