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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: Symmetrical tetra-chloroethane; Acetylene tetrachloride; sym-Tetrachloroethane

OSHA IMIS Code Number: 2340

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 79-34-5

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: KI8575000

Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 1702 151

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Z-1 Table -- 5 ppm, 35 mg/m3 TWA; Skin

Construction Industry: 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A -- 5 ppm, 35 mg/m3 TWA; Skin

Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards -- 5 ppm, 35 mg/m3 TWA; Skin
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 1 ppm, 6.9 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A3 - Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 1 ppm, 7 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens; Appendix C - Supplementary Exposure Limits (Chloroethanes)


Health Factors

Carcinogenic Classification:
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Group C, possible human carcinogen

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Group 3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans [380 KB PDF, 171 pages]
NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 100 ppm

Potential Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain; tremors in fingers; jaundice, hepatitis, liver tenderness; dermatitis; leukocytosis (increased blood leukocytes); kidney damage, headache, dizziness, drowsiness, confusion, convulsions; kidney damage; [potential occupational carcinogen]

Health Effects: Cumulative liver and other organ damage (HE3); Mutagen/ Suspect carcinogen (HE2)

Affected Organs: Skin, liver, kidneys, CNS, GI tract

Notes:
  1. Liver damage by acute high-level exposure is thought to be mediated by a cytochrome P450-dependent formation of dichloroacetyl chloride, a very reactive metabolite.
  2. A P450-dependent activation of radiolabeled 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane was also reported for epithelial linings in mice, especially those of the respiratory tract (highest in the nasal olfactory mucosa) and upper alimentary tract, to which there was irreversible metabolite binding.
  3. Urinary metabolites of 1,1,2,2-tetra-chloroethane in mice include dichloroacetic acid (major metabolite), trichloroethanol, and trichloroacetic acid.
Date Last Revised: 11/03/2005

Literature Basis:
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane.
  • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane.
  • EPA Air Toxics Website: 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
  • Eriksson, C. and Brittebo, E.B.: Epithelial binding of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane in the respiratory and upper alimentary tract. Arch. Toxicol. 65(1): 10-14, 1991.
  • Halpert, J.: Cytochrome P-450-dependent covalent binding of 1,1,2,2,-tetrachloroethane in vitro. Drug Metab. Dispos. 10(5): 465-468, 1982.
  • No authors listed: 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane. IARC Monogr. Eval. Carcinog. Risks Hum. 71(Pt. 2) [380 KB PDF, 171 pages]: 817-827, 1999.
  • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 2163-2166.
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
  • sampling media: Petroleum Base Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
    analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
    maximum volume: 10 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
    current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
    method reference: NIOSH Analytical Method (NIOSH 1019) [21 KB PDF, 4 pages]
    method classification: Partially Validated
Wipe Sampling Method:
  • sampling media: Charcoal pad
    note: Seal in glass vial for shipment.
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Page last updated: 09/05/2006

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