American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 1 ppm, 6.9 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A3 - Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 1 ppm, 7 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens; Appendix C - Supplementary Exposure Limits (Chloroethanes)
Health Effects: Cumulative liver and other organ damage (HE3); Mutagen/ Suspect carcinogen (HE2)
Affected Organs: Skin, liver, kidneys, CNS, GI tract
Liver damage by acute high-level exposure is thought to be mediated by a cytochrome P450-dependent formation of dichloroacetyl chloride, a very reactive metabolite.
A P450-dependent activation of radiolabeled 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane was also reported for epithelial linings in mice, especially those of the respiratory tract (highest in the nasal olfactory mucosa) and upper alimentary tract, to which there was irreversible metabolite binding.
Urinary metabolites of 1,1,2,2-tetra-chloroethane in mice include dichloroacetic acid (major metabolite), trichloroethanol, and trichloroacetic acid.
Pohanish, R.P. (editor): 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 2163-2166.
Date Last Revised: 11/03/2005
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
Petroleum Base Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
maximum volume: 10 Liters
maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
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