Commonly known as "avian flu" or "bird flu," avian influenza is a disease in people and certain animals caused by infection with avian influenza viruses (AIVs). These viruses are strains of influenza type A. These viruses are normally found only in birds. Although rare in the U.S., they can also cause infections among people.
Globally, avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been identified in more than 100 different wild bird species.1 AIVs can also sicken and kill domesticated birds, such as chickens, ducks, and turkeys. Depending on the AIV, infections may be highly contagious among birds in these populations.
This page provides information about avian influenza (AI) for workers and employers, but most importantly, safety measures for those workers who are:
- Egg or poultry farmers or processors.
- Pet shop employees, veterinarians or zookeepers.
- Research laboratory employees.
- Restaurant employees or others who handle raw poultry.
The page includes sections on:
Provides background information on Avian Influenza including source and transmission.
Control and Prevention
Discusses strategies for controlling and preventing worker exposure to avian influenza.
OSHA's COVID-19 Safety and Health Topics page provides specific information about protecting workers from coronavirus during the ongoing outbreak.
- As of March 2017, strains of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are circulating in poultry flocks in Asia and North America. There have been more than 1,000 human cases of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) in humans in China.
- Most AIVs do not infect humans; however, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have caused serious infections in humans. There have never been human HPAI cases in the U.S. and only very few, sporadic human LPAI cases.
- Worker exposure to AIVs is rare. During a major outbreak, exposure to the virus may be more likely in certain workers, including poultry workers, animal handlers, food handlers, healthcare workers, laboratory workers and business travelers.
- There is no evidence of sustained human-to-human transmission of avian influenza (AI).
- Most human infections are linked to exposure to infected, live or dead poultry.
- Employers must take steps to protect their workers from exposure to avian influenza on the job.
- OSHA Guidance Update on Protecting Employees from Avian Flu (Avian Influenza) Viruses. OSHA Publication 3323, (2006). Also available in Spanish.
- Avian Flu. OSHA Fact Sheet, (2006). Also available in Spanish.
- OSHA Quick Cards™ to Protect Yourself: Avian Flu
- Avian Influenza Protecting Poultry Workers at Risk. OSHA.
1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Avian Influenza: Current Situation.