OSHA's Variance Program
A variance is permission granted to an employer to deviate from the requirements of an OSHA standard under specified conditions. A variance does not provide an outright exemption from a standard, except in cases involving national defense as described below. Sections 6 and 16 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSH Act), and the implementing rules contained in the Code of Federal Regulations (29 CFR 1905 and 1904.38), authorized variances from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards. An employer or class of employers may request a variance for any specific workplaces. Employers may seek a variance if they wish to use methods, equipment, or facilities that they believe protect workers as well as, or better than, OSHA standards.
The Office of Technical Programs and Coordination Activities (OTPCA) in OSHA's Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management (DTSEM) receives and processes variance applications. OTPCA processes variance applications in close collaboration with other affected regional offices and directorates. OSHA's mandate is to ensure that employers' alternatives for worker protection proposed in their variance applications are as effective in providing worker protection as the standards from which the employers are seeking a variance.
For questions about the variance process contact OSHA at VarianceProgram@dol.gov.
Employers and Variance Applicants
- Frequently Asked Questions
- Types of Variances
- How to Apply for a Variance
- Variances from OSHA Standards. OSHA Fact Sheet, (October 2009).
Variance Program Laws, Regulations, and Directives
- OSHA Law & Regulations
- Standards Development
- OSH Act
- Variance Program Rules (29 CFR 1905)
- Variances from recordkeeping rule (29 CFR 1904.38)
- Variance Program Directive and Guidance
Completed, Granted or Denied Variances
OSHA Approved State Plans
Employers located in states with their own occupational safety and health programs should check the state plan(s) variance application regulations and apply to the state(s) for a variance. If however, an employer operates facilities in states under federal OSHA jurisdiction and also in state plans, the employer may apply directly to federal OSHA for a single variance applicable to all the establishments in question. OSHA will then work with the state plans involved to determine if a variance can be granted which will satisfy state as well as federal OSHA requirements.
For questions about state plans please visit OSHA's State Plans Web page and for questions about the variance process contact OSHA at VarianceProgram@dol.gov.