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Stoddard Solvent

General Description

Synonyms:  White spirits; Mineral spirits; Dry cleaning safety solvent; Petroleum solvent; Naphtha solvent; Spotting naphtha

OSHA IMIS code: 2270

CAS number(s): 8052-41-3

Exposure Limits and Health Effects (Updated September 6, 2012)

Standard Set By Exposure Limit Health Effect Codes -- Health Effects and Target Organs
OSHA PEL - General Industry
See 29 CFR 1910.1000 Table Z-1
500 ppm (2900 mg/m3) TWA
HE8 -- narcosis
HE15 -- eye irritation
OSHA PEL - Construction Industry
See 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A
200 ppm (1150 mg/m3) TWA
HE8 -- narcosis
HE15 -- eye irritation
OSHA PEL - Shipyard Employment
See 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z - Shipyards
200 ppm (1150 mg/m3) TWA
HE8 -- narcosis
HE15 -- eye irritation
NIOSH REL

350 mg/m3 TWA
1800 mg/m3 Ceiling (15 minutes)

HE7 -- dizziness
HE15 -- eye, nose, throat, and skin irritation
ACGIH TLV® (1980) 100 ppm (525 mg/m3) TWA HE3 -- kidney damage
HE8 -- narcosis
HE15 -- eye and skin irritation, dermatitis, defatting of skin
CAL/OSHA PELs 100 ppm (525 mg/m3) TWA
HE3 -- kidney damage
HE8 -- narcosis
HE15 -- eye and skin irritation, dermatitis, defatting of skin

Carcinogenic classification:

  • NTP: Not listed
  • IARC: Not listed
  • EPA: Not listed

EPA Inhalation Reference Concentration (RfC): Not established

ATSDR Inhalation Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs): Not established

NIOSH IDLH concentration: 20,000 mg/m3

Notes on other potential health effects and hazards:

  1. Explosive vapor/air mixtures may be formed at temperatures above 21°C (NIOSH/IPCS 2004).
  2. Case studies involving exposures to Stoddard solvent found associations with glomerulonephritis and acquired color vision loss (dyschromatopsia) (ATSDR 1995).
  3. While IARC has yet to evaluate petroleum solvents as a whole, it has determined that some petroleum distillates are probably carcinogenic to those working in petroleum refining (ATSDR 1995).
  4. In addition to kidney lesions in male rats caused by the accumulation of α2-microglobulin (a protein not produced by humans), two-year inhalation studies of Stoddard Solvent II(c) by NTP in rats and mice found an increased incidence of adrenal medulla neoplasms (pheochromocytoma) only in male rats and a slight increase of liver adenomas only in female mice (NTP 2004).
  5. The half-lives in blood of three of the chemicals in Stoddard solvent ranged from 2.1 to 7.5 hours for 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene; 0.8 to 7.0 hours for n-decane; and 1.3 to 4.1 hours for n-undecane in nine healthy male volunteers exposed for two hours to 300 mg solvent/m3 of air. The recovery of 3,4-dimethylhippuric acid, a major metabolite of 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, in urine over 22 hours ranged from 23% to 31% of the net respiratory uptake of 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (Järnberg et al. 1998).
  6. Chronic exposure of shoe-manufacturing workers to the solvent in glue at a level close to 500 mg/m3 was reportedly associated with significant deficits in various neuropsychological tests, including the Bender Test, Dots Location Test, and Kraepelin Test, indicating fatigability and decreased ability to perform work requiring long-term concentration (Bazylewica-Walczak et al. 1990).

Partial reference list:

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