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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: White spirits; Mineral spirits; Dry cleaning safety solvent; Petroleum solvent; Naphtha solvent; Spotting naphtha

OSHA IMIS Code Number: 2270

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 8052-41-3

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: WJ8925000

Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and 2012 Emergency Response Guidebook [4 MB PDF, 392 pages]: 1268 128 (petroleum distillates, n.o.s.)

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Stoddard Solvent: Physical description, chemical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits and Health Effects

Exposure Limit

Limit Values

HE Codes

Health Factors and Target Organs

OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) - General Industry
See 29 CFR 1910.1000 Table Z-1

500 ppm (2,900 mg/m3) TWA

HE8

Narcosis

HE15

Eye irritation

OSHA PEL - Construction Industry
See 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A

200 ppm (1,150 mg/m3) TWA

HE8

Narcosis

HE15

Eye irritation

OSHA PEL - Shipyard Employment
See 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards

200 ppm (1,150 mg/m3) TWA

HE8

Narcosis

HE15

Eye irritation

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL)

350 mg/m3 TWA

1,800 mg/m3 Ceiling
(15 minutes)

HE7

Dizziness

HE15

Eye, nose, throat, and skin irritation

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) (2001)

100 ppm
(525 mg/m3) TWA

HE3

Kidney damage

HE8

Narcosis

HE15

Eye and skin irritation, dermatitis, defatting of skin

CAL/OSHA PEL

100 ppm
(525 mg/m3) TWA

HE3

Kidney damage

HE8

Narcosis

HE15

Eye and skin irritation, dermatitis, defatting of skin

National Toxicology Program (NTP) carcinogenic classification: Not listed

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) carcinogenic classification: Not listed

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) carcinogenic classification: Not listed

EPA Inhalation Reference Concentration (RfC): Not established

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Inhalation Minimal Risk Level (MRL): Not established

NIOSH Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) concentration: 20,000 mg/m3

Notes on Other Potential Health Effects and Hazards

  1. Explosive vapor/air mixtures may be formed at temperatures above 21°C (NIOSH/IPCS 2004).
  2. Case studies involving exposures to Stoddard solvent found associations with glomerulonephritis and acquired color vision loss (dyschromatopsia) (ATSDR 1995).
  3. While IARC has yet to evaluate petroleum solvents as a whole, it has determined that some petroleum distillates are probably carcinogenic to those working in petroleum refining (ATSDR 1995).
  4. In addition to kidney lesions in male rats caused by the accumulation of α2-microglobulin (a protein not produced by humans), two-year inhalation studies of Stoddard Solvent II(c) by NTP in rats and mice found an increased incidence of adrenal medulla neoplasms (pheochromocytoma) only in male rats and a slight increase of liver adenomas only in female mice (NTP 2004).
  5. The half-lives in blood of three of the chemicals in Stoddard solvent ranged from 2.1 to 7.5 hours for 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene; 0.8 to 7.0 hours for n-decane; and 1.3 to 4.1 hours for n-undecane in nine healthy male volunteers exposed for two hours to 300 mg solvent/m3 of air. The recovery of 3,4-dimethylhippuric acid, a major metabolite of 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, in urine over 22 hours ranged from 23% to 31% of the net respiratory uptake of 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (Järnberg et al. 1998).
  6. Chronic exposure of shoe-manufacturing workers to the solvent in glue at a level close to 500 mg/m3 was reportedly associated with significant deficits in various neuropsychological tests, including the Bender Test, Dots Location Test, and Kraepelin Test, indicating fatigability and decreased ability to perform work requiring long-term concentration (Bazylewica-Walczak et al. 1990).

Date Last Revised: 12/11/2012

Literature Basis


Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:

  • sampling media: Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
    analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
  • alternate solvent: (99:1) Carbon Disulfide:Dimethylformamide
    alternate solvent: (95:5) Methylene Chloride:Methanol
    maximum volume: 3 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
    current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
    method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 48)
    method classification: Fully Validated

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