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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: Dibenzoparathiazine Thiodiphenylamine; AFI-Tiazin; Agrazine; Antiverm; Biverm; Dibenzothiazine; Orimon; Thiodiphenylamine; Lethelmin; Souframine; Nemazene; Vermitin; Padophene; Fenoverm; Fentiazine; Contaverm; Fenothiazine

OSHA IMIS Code Number: 2041

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 92-84-2

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: SN5075000

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Phenothiazine: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 5 mg/m3 TWA; Skin

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 5 mg/m3 TWA; Skin

Health Factors

Potential symptoms: Itching, irritation, reddening of skin; cough, sore throat; hepatitis, hemolytic anemia; abdominal cramps; tachycardia, irregular heart beat; kidney damage; allergic liver reaction, toxic liver degeneration; eye redness, pain; skin photosensitization, dermatitis; muscle twitching and shaking; INGES. ACUTE: Abdominal pain; nausea, vomiting.

Health Effects: Irritation-Eyes, Nose, Throat, Skin---Moderate (HE15); Photosensitization-Skin (HE3)

Affected organs: Skin, cardiovascular system, liver, kidneys

Notes:

  • 1) OSHA does not have a PEL for phenothiazine.
  • 2) About two-thirds of orally administered radiolabeled phenothiazine in human volunteers was excreted unchanged in the feces and several metabolites were excreted in the urine with a biphasic half-life of 6-16 hours. Major urinary metabolites include phenothiazine N-glucuronide and leucophenothiazone sulfate.
  • 3) Some of the toxic effects of phenothiazine may be caused by one or more of its unconjugated metabolites.
  • 4) Tolerance limits for phenothiazine, when used as a pesticide (Bar Fly insecticide), were revoked by the EPA in 1995, after its registration was cancelled.
  • 5) Phenothiazine is denoted by the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences as the veterinary drug of choice for treating cecal worm (Heterakis gallinae) infection in poultry.
Date Last Revised: 05/11/2005

Literature Basis:
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Phenothiazine.
  • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Phenothiazine.
  • Jacobs, R.D., Hogsette, J.A. and Butcher, G.D.: Nematode parasites of poultry (and where to find them). Document No. PS18, Animal Science Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Services, University of Florida, Gainesville, 5 pp., 1997.
  • Mitchell, S.C.: The toxicity of phenothiazine. Drug Metabol. Drug Interact. 11(3): 201-235, 1994.
  • Mitchell, S.C., Kestell, P., Steventon, G.B. and Waring, R.H.: Fate of the anthelmintic, phenothiazine, in man. Xenobiotica 32(9): 771-782, 2002.
  • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Phenothiazine. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1824-1826.
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):

  • Sampling Media: Glass Fiber Filter (37 mm)
    Maximum Volume: 100 Liters Maximum Flow Rate: 1.0 L/min
    Current Analytical Method: Gas Chromatography; GC/NPD
    Method Reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA PV2048)
    Method Classification: Partially Validated
    Note: Protect samples from sunlight.

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