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Synonyms: Dibenzoparathiazine Thiodiphenylamine; AFI-Tiazin; Agrazine; Antiverm; Biverm; Dibenzothiazine; Orimon; Thiodiphenylamine; Lethelmin; Souframine; Nemazene; Vermitin; Padophene; Fenoverm; Fentiazine; Contaverm; Fenothiazine
OSHA IMIS Code Number: 2041
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 92-84-2
NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: SN5075000
NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Phenothiazine: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 5 mg/m3 TWA; Skin
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 5 mg/m3 TWA; Skin
Potential symptoms: Itching, irritation, reddening of skin; cough, sore throat; hepatitis, hemolytic anemia; abdominal cramps; tachycardia, irregular heart beat; kidney damage; allergic liver reaction, toxic liver degeneration; eye redness, pain; skin photosensitization, dermatitis; muscle twitching and shaking; INGES. ACUTE: Abdominal pain; nausea, vomiting.
Health Effects: Irritation-Eyes, Nose, Throat, Skin---Moderate (HE15); Photosensitization-Skin (HE3)
Affected organs: Skin, cardiovascular system, liver, kidneys
Date Last Revised: 05/11/2005
- 1) OSHA does not have a PEL for phenothiazine.
- 2) About two-thirds of orally administered radiolabeled phenothiazine in human volunteers was excreted unchanged in the feces and several metabolites were excreted in the urine with a biphasic half-life of 6-16 hours. Major urinary metabolites include phenothiazine N-glucuronide and leucophenothiazone sulfate.
- 3) Some of the toxic effects of phenothiazine may be caused by one or more of its unconjugated metabolites.
- 4) Tolerance limits for phenothiazine, when used as a pesticide (Bar Fly insecticide), were revoked by the EPA in 1995, after its registration was cancelled.
- 5) Phenothiazine is denoted by the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences as the veterinary drug of choice for treating cecal worm (Heterakis gallinae) infection in poultry.
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Phenothiazine.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Phenothiazine.
- Jacobs, R.D., Hogsette, J.A. and Butcher, G.D.: Nematode parasites of poultry (and where to find them). Document No. PS18, Animal Science Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Services, University of Florida, Gainesville, 5 pp., 1997.
- Mitchell, S.C.: The toxicity of phenothiazine. Drug Metabol. Drug Interact. 11(3): 201-235, 1994.
- Mitchell, S.C., Kestell, P., Steventon, G.B. and Waring, R.H.: Fate of the anthelmintic, phenothiazine, in man. Xenobiotica 32(9): 771-782, 2002.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Phenothiazine. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1824-1826.
Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
- Sampling Media: Glass Fiber Filter (37 mm)
Maximum Volume: 100 Liters Maximum Flow Rate: 1.0 L/min
Current Analytical Method: Gas Chromatography; GC/NPD
Method Reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA PV2048)
Method Classification: Partially Validated
Note: Protect samples from sunlight.
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