Powered by GoogleTranslate

Naphthalene

General Description

Synonyms: Naphthalin; Naphthaline; Naphthene

OSHA IMIS code: 1810

CAS number: 91-20-3

Exposure Limits and Health Effects (Updated September 6, 2012)

Standard Set By Exposure Limit Health Effect Codes -- Health Effects and Target Organs
OSHA PEL - General Industry
See 29 CFR 1910.1000 Table Z-1
10 ppm (50 mg/m3) TWA
HE3 -- cataracts, jaundice, bloody urine, kidney and liver damage
HE7 -- headache, tiredness, confusion Target organs: Brain, central nervous system
HE12 -- hemolytic anemia
HE14 -- marked eye and skin irritation
OSHA PEL - Construction Industry
See 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A
10 ppm (50 mg/m3) TWA
HE3 -- cataracts, jaundice, bloody urine, kidney and liver damage
HE7 -- headache, tiredness, confusion Target organs: Brain, central nervous system
HE12 -- hemolytic anemia
HE14 -- marked eye and skin irritation
OSHA PEL - Shipyard Employment
See 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z - Shipyards
10 ppm (50 mg/m3) TWA
HE3 -- cataracts, jaundice, bloody urine, kidney and liver damage
HE7 -- headache, tiredness, confusion Target organs: Brain, central nervous system
HE12 -- hemolytic anemia
HE14 -- marked eye and skin irritation
NIOSH REL 10 ppm (50 mg/m3) TWA
15 ppm (75 mg/m3) STEL
HE3 -- jaundice, blood in urine, renal shutdown, optical neuritis, corneal damage
HE7 -- headache, confusion, excitement Target organs: Brain, central nervous system
HE14 -- eye irritation
ACGIH TLV® (2013) 10 ppm (52 mg/m3) TWA
Skin
A3
HE3 -- ocular toxicity (cataracts, optical neuritis, lens opacities, retinal degeneration), jaundice, renal failure
HE7 -- headache Target organs: Brain, central nervous system
HE12 -- hemolytic anemia
HE14 -- marked eye and respiratory tract irritation
CAL/OSHA PELs 0.1 ppm (0.5 mg/m3) TWA
15 ppm (75 mg/m3) STEL
HE2 -- Anticipated human carcinogen
HE3 -- ocular toxicity (cataracts, optical neuritis, lens opacities, retinal degeneration), jaundice, renal failure
HE7 -- headache Target organs: Brain, central nervous system
HE12 -- hemolytic anemia
HE14 -- marked eye and respiratory tract irritation

In the ACGIH 2012 Notice of Intended Changes, ACGIH proposed the following limit values and notations: 5 ppm TWA; No STEL; Skin; A3; basis: upper respiratory tract irritation.

Carcinogenic classification:

EPA Inhalation Reference Concentration (RfC): 3x10-3 mg/m3

ATSDR Inhalation Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs): 0.0007 ppm (chronic)

NIOSH IDLH concentration: 250 ppm

Notes on other potential health effects and hazards:

  1. EPA's oral reference dose (daily oral exposure likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime) for naphthalene is 0.02 mg/kg/day (EPA 2000).
  2. At least one study has shown that exposure to naphthalene in the air at a workplace can lead to DNA strand breaks, which are often seen as a precursor to tumor formation (Marczynski et al. 2005).
  3. There have been numerous reports of hemolytic anemia and cataracts following occupational exposure to naphthalene (ATSDR 1995).
  4. Naphthalene in expired air has been studied as a biomarker of dermal and inhalational exposure to jet fuel, but the elimination in breath is fairly rapid, with a halftime of 19 to 25 minutes (Egeghy et al. 2003).
  5. Occupational monitoring of naphthalene exposure usually involves the measurement of the urinary metabolites 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol (Preuss et al. 2003).
  6. The EPA reference concentration is based on an inhalation study in mice in which hyperplasia and metaplasia in respiratory and olfactory epithelium, were observed  in nearly all the animals at 30 ppm, which was the lowest dose tested (EPA 1998).
  7. The NTP classification of naphthalene as reasonably anticipated to be carcinogenic to humans, and the IARC classification as Group 2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans, was based on an inhalation bioassay in rats and mice (IARC 2002).

Partial reference list:

  • ACGIH: Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) - Naphthalene. 2016.
  • ATSDR: Toxicological Profile for Naphthalene, 1-Methylnaphthalene and 2-Methylnaphthalene. 2005.
  • Egeghy, P.P., Hauf-Cabalo, L., Gibson, R. and Rappaport, S.M.: Benzene and naphthalene in air and breath as indicators of exposure to jet fuel. Occup. Environ. Med. 60(12): 969-976, 2003.
  • EPA: Integrated Risk Information System - Napthalene. 1998.
  • IARC Monographs on Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Volume 82, Naphthalene, 2002
  • Marczynski, B. et al.: Genotoxic risk assessment in white blood cells of occupationally exposed workers before and after alteration of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) profile in the production material: comparison with PAH air and urinary metabolite levels. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 78(2): 97-108, 2005.
  • NIOSH: Occupational Health Guideline for Naphthalene. September 1978.
  • NIOSH/CEC/IPCS: International Chemical Safety CardsNaphthalene. April 21, 2005.
  • NTP: Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of naphthalene in B6C3F1 mice (inhalation studies). Technical Report Series No. 410. NIH Publication No. 92-3141. (1992).
  • NTP: Report on Carcinogens - Napthalene.
  • Preuss, R., Angerer, J. and Drexler, H.: Naphthalene - an environmental and occupational toxicant. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health 76(8): 556-576, 2003.

Chemical Sampling Information

By Name

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

By CAS Number

** All Trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

Back to Top

Thank You for Visiting Our Website

You are exiting the Department of Labor's Web server.

The Department of Labor does not endorse, takes no responsibility for, and exercises no control over the linked organization or its views, or contents, nor does it vouch for the accuracy or accessibility of the information contained on the destination server. The Department of Labor also cannot authorize the use of copyrighted materials contained in linked Web sites. Users must request such authorization from the sponsor of the linked Web site. Thank you for visiting our site. Please click the button below to continue.

Close