US Dept of Labor

Occupational Safety & Health AdministrationWe Can Help


General Description

  • Synonyms: 2,4,6-Triamino-1,3,5-triazine; 1,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6-triamine; Cyanuramide; Cyanurotriamide; 2,4,6-Triamino-s-triazine; Cymel
  • OSHA IMIS Code Number: M166
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 108-78-1
  • NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: OS0700000
  • Chemical Description and Physical Properties:
    • colorless to white crystals
    • molecular weight: 126.15
    • vapor pressure: 6.7 kPa & 315°C
    • molecular formula: C3H6N6
    • melting point: <250°C

Health Factors

  • Carcinogenic Classification:
  • Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin, and mucous membranes; dermatitis; in animals: chronic inflammation of kidneys (female rats); ulceration of urinary bladder epithelium (mice), urolithiasis (rats and mice); bladder cancer (male rats)
  • Health Effects: Irritation-Eye, Nose, Throat, Skin---Mild (HE16)
  • Affected Organs: Kidneys, bladder, skin
  • Notes:
    1. The main constituents of the stones in the urinary bladders of rats given melamine in the diet were reported to be unchanged melamine and uric acid in a 1:1 molar ratio.
    2. Dimelamine phosphate was reported to be a urinary product of melamine in dogs and rats, which showed a diuretic response to melamine.
    3. Several cases of allergic contact dermatitis from melamine-formaldehyde resin, with or without sensitivity to formaldehyde alone, have been reported. Melamine alone, however, was reportedly not a sensitizer in guinea pigs at an aqueous concentration of 1%.
  • Literature Basis:
    • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Melamine.
    • Aalto-Korte, A., Jolanki, R. and Estlander, T.: Formaldehyde-negative allergic contact dermatitis from melamine-formaldehyde resin. Contact Dermatitis 49(4): 194-196, 2003.
    • Isaksson, M., Zimerson, E. and Bruze, M.: Occupational dermatoses in composite production. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 41(4): 261-266, 1999.
    • Lipschitz, W.L. and Stokey, E.: The mode of action of three new diuretics: melamine, adenine and formoguanamine. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 83: 235-249, 1945.
    • Melnick, R.L., Boorman, G.A., Haseman, J.K., Montali, R.J. and Huff, J.: Urolithiasis and bladder carcinogenicity of melamine in rodents. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 72(2): 292-303, 1984.
    • No authors: Melamine. IARC Monogr. Eval. Carcinog. Risks Hum.: 329-338, 1999.
    • Ogasawara, H., et al.: Urinary bladder carcinogenesis induced by melamine in F344 male rats: correlation between carcinogenicity and urolith formation. Carcinogenesis 16(11): 2773-2777, 1995.
    • Pang, S.N.J.: Final report on the safety assessment of melamine/formaldehyde resin. J. Am. Coll. Toxicol. 14(5): 373-385, 1995.
    • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Melamine. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1454-1455.
  • Date Last Revised: 10/24/2005

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
  • Glass Fiber Filter
  • maximum volume: 40 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min
  • current analytical method: High Performance Liquid Chromatography; HPLC
  • analytical solvent: Water
  • method reference: OSHA Salt Lake Technical Center In-House File
  • method classification: Not Validated

Column: CN Alt Column: C18 Mobile Phase: MeOH/H20 0.025 M KN03 PH=4 with phosphoric . acid Alt Mobile Phase: 55:45:0.1 Acetonitrile:Water:Phosphoric . acid Detector Wavelength: 215 Alt Detector Wavelength: 205 nm


Pukkila, Jari; Peltonen, Kimmo; Savolainen, Tuure. "Journal of Chromatography" 411 (1987) pp. 409-414. ...Title: Determination of Melamine in Air by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Detection. ...Collection: 13mm glass fiber filter. ...Air Vol and Flowrate: 40 Liters at 1 L/min ...Analysis: HPLC ...Column: CN ...Eluent: Methanol/water with 0.025 M Potassium phosphate ...Detector: UV at 215 nm or 235 nm. ...Comment: They generated air concentrations to evaluate collection efficiency and found no apparent loss from oxidation. ...Keywords: Melamine; Epoxy Powder; Dicyandiamide

** All Trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

Search Chemical Sampling Information


By Name


By CAS Number
collage image - OSHA Salt Lake Technical Center
Back to Top

Thank You for Visiting Our Website

You are exiting the Department of Labor's Web server.

The Department of Labor does not endorse, takes no responsibility for, and exercises no control over the linked organization or its views, or contents, nor does it vouch for the accuracy or accessibility of the information contained on the destination server. The Department of Labor also cannot authorize the use of copyrighted materials contained in linked Web sites. Users must request such authorization from the sponsor of the linked Web site. Thank you for visiting our site. Please click the button below to continue.