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General Description

  • Synonyms: 2,4,6-Triamino-1,3,5-triazine; 1,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6-triamine; Cyanuramide; Cyanurotriamide; 2,4,6-Triamino-s-triazine; Cymel
  • OSHA IMIS Code Number: M166
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 108-78-1
  • NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: OS0700000
  • Chemical Description and Physical Properties:
    • colorless to white crystals
    • molecular weight: 126.15
    • vapor pressure: 6.7 kPa & 315°C
    • molecular formula: C3H6N6
    • melting point: <250°C

Health Factors

  • Carcinogenic Classification:
  • Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin, and mucous membranes; dermatitis; in animals: chronic inflammation of kidneys (female rats); ulceration of urinary bladder epithelium (mice), urolithiasis (rats and mice); bladder cancer (male rats)
  • Health Effects: Irritation-Eye, Nose, Throat, Skin---Mild (HE16)
  • Affected Organs: Kidneys, bladder, skin
  • Notes:
    1. The main constituents of the stones in the urinary bladders of rats given melamine in the diet were reported to be unchanged melamine and uric acid in a 1:1 molar ratio.
    2. Dimelamine phosphate was reported to be a urinary product of melamine in dogs and rats, which showed a diuretic response to melamine.
    3. Several cases of allergic contact dermatitis from melamine-formaldehyde resin, with or without sensitivity to formaldehyde alone, have been reported. Melamine alone, however, was reportedly not a sensitizer in guinea pigs at an aqueous concentration of 1%.
  • Literature Basis:
    • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Melamine.
    • Aalto-Korte, A., Jolanki, R. and Estlander, T.: Formaldehyde-negative allergic contact dermatitis from melamine-formaldehyde resin. Contact Dermatitis 49(4): 194-196, 2003.
    • Isaksson, M., Zimerson, E. and Bruze, M.: Occupational dermatoses in composite production. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 41(4): 261-266, 1999.
    • Lipschitz, W.L. and Stokey, E.: The mode of action of three new diuretics: melamine, adenine and formoguanamine. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 83: 235-249, 1945.
    • Melnick, R.L., Boorman, G.A., Haseman, J.K., Montali, R.J. and Huff, J.: Urolithiasis and bladder carcinogenicity of melamine in rodents. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 72(2): 292-303, 1984.
    • No authors: Melamine. IARC Monogr. Eval. Carcinog. Risks Hum.: 329-338, 1999.
    • Ogasawara, H., et al.: Urinary bladder carcinogenesis induced by melamine in F344 male rats: correlation between carcinogenicity and urolith formation. Carcinogenesis 16(11): 2773-2777, 1995.
    • Pang, S.N.J.: Final report on the safety assessment of melamine/formaldehyde resin. J. Am. Coll. Toxicol. 14(5): 373-385, 1995.
    • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Melamine. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1454-1455.
  • Date Last Revised: 10/24/2005

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
  • Glass Fiber Filter
  • maximum volume: 40 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min
  • current analytical method: High Performance Liquid Chromatography; HPLC
  • analytical solvent: Water
  • method reference: OSHA Salt Lake Technical Center In-House File
  • method classification: Not Validated

Column: CN Alt Column: C18 Mobile Phase: MeOH/H20 0.025 M KN03 PH=4 with phosphoric . acid Alt Mobile Phase: 55:45:0.1 Acetonitrile:Water:Phosphoric . acid Detector Wavelength: 215 Alt Detector Wavelength: 205 nm


Pukkila, Jari; Peltonen, Kimmo; Savolainen, Tuure. "Journal of Chromatography" 411 (1987) pp. 409-414. ...Title: Determination of Melamine in Air by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Detection. ...Collection: 13mm glass fiber filter. ...Air Vol and Flowrate: 40 Liters at 1 L/min ...Analysis: HPLC ...Column: CN ...Eluent: Methanol/water with 0.025 M Potassium phosphate ...Detector: UV at 215 nm or 235 nm. ...Comment: They generated air concentrations to evaluate collection efficiency and found no apparent loss from oxidation. ...Keywords: Melamine; Epoxy Powder; Dicyandiamide

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