The U.S. EPA issued final orders cancelling the registrations of all remaining pesticide products containing lindane on December 13, 2006. The last use date for these products will be October 1, 2009.
EPA’s oral reference dose (daily oral exposure likely to be without an appreciable risk of noncancer effects during a lifetime) for lindane is 0.0003 mg/kg/day.
Hundreds of accidental intoxications of lindane have occurred by ingestion of topical preparations for the treatment of pedulicosis and scabies.
Lindane can be absorbed through the skin and excreted in the urine as trichlorophenol glucuronide metabolites.
More than 20 urinary metabolites were found among a group of 21 lindane-production employees, the most abundant being conjugates of 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-, 2,3,5- and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol.
The mean half-life for urinary excretion of radioactivity from 14C-labeled lindane administered intravenously to 6 volunteers was reported to be 26 hours.
Exposure to lindane is among the three insecticide exposures reported to be positively associated with farmer’s lung (hypersensitivity pneumonitis).
Epidemiological studies in the US and Iceland reported an exposure-related increased risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Substantia nigra tissues from brains of parkinsonism patients were reported to contain significantly greater amounts of lindane than those from patients with cortical Lewy body dementia, Alzheimer’s disease or patients without dementia or parkinsonism (controls).
Angerer, J., Maass, R. and Heinrich, R.: Occupational exposure to hexachlorocyclohexane. VI. Metabolism of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane in man. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health52(1): 59-67, 1983.
Blair, A., Cantor, K.P. and Zahm, S.H.: Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and agricultural use of the insecticide lindane. Am. J. Ind. Med.33(1): 82-87, 1998.
Corrigan, F.M., Weinburg, C.L., Shore, R.F., Daniel, S.E. and Mann, D.: Organochlorine insecticides in substantia nigra in Parkinson’s disease. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health59(4): 229-234.
Dick, A.P., Blain, P.G. and Williams, F.M.: The percutaneous absorption and skin distribution of lindane in man. I. In vivo studies. Hum. Exp. Toxicol.16(11): 645-651, 1997.
Drummond, L., Gillanders, E.M. and Wilson, H.K.: Plasma ?-hexachlorocyclohexane concentrations in forestry workers exposed to lindane. Br. J. Ind. Med.45(7): 493-497, 1988.
Feldmann, R.J. and Maibach, H.I.: Percutaneous penetration of some pesticides and herbicides in man. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 28: 126-132, 1974.
Hoppin, J.A., et al.: Pesticides and other agricultural factors associated with self-reported farmer’s lung among farm residents in the Agricultural Health Study. Occup. Environ. Med.64: 334-341, 2007.
No Authors: Lindane (PDF). Report on Carcinogens (latest edition); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
No Authors: Pesticide News Story: Remaining Lindane Registrations Cancelled.
Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Lindane. In, Sittig’s Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1406-1409.
Purdue, M.P., Hoppin, J.A., Blair, A., Dosemeci, M. and Alavanja, M.C.: Occupational exposure to organochlorine insecticides and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study. Int. J. Cancer120(3): 642-649, 2007.
All other documents, that are not PDF materials or formatted for the web, are available as Microsoft Office® formats and videos and are noted accordingly. If additional assistance is needed with reading, reviewing or accessing these documents or any figures and illustrations, please also contact OSHA's Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management at (202) 693-2300.
**eBooks - EPUB is the most common format for e-Books. If you use a Sony Reader, a Nook, or an iPad you can download the EPUB file format. If you use a Kindle, you can download the MOBI file format.
U.S. Department of Labor | Occupational Safety & Health Administration | 200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210 Telephone: 800-321-OSHA (6742) | TTY www.OSHA.gov
Thank You for Visiting Our Website
You are exiting the Department of Labor's Web server.
The Department of Labor does not endorse, takes no responsibility for, and exercises no control over the linked organization or its views, or contents, nor does it vouch for the accuracy or accessibility of the information contained on the destination server. The Department of Labor also cannot authorize the use of copyrighted materials contained in linked Web sites. Users must request such authorization from the sponsor of the linked Web site. Thank you for visiting our site. Please click the button below to continue.