The U.S. EPA issued final orders cancelling the registrations of all remaining pesticide products containing lindane on December 13, 2006. The last use date for these products will be October 1, 2009.
EPA’s oral reference dose (daily oral exposure likely to be without an appreciable risk of noncancer effects during a lifetime) for lindane is 0.0003 mg/kg/day.
Hundreds of accidental intoxications of lindane have occurred by ingestion of topical preparations for the treatment of pedulicosis and scabies.
Lindane can be absorbed through the skin and excreted in the urine as trichlorophenol glucuronide metabolites.
More than 20 urinary metabolites were found among a group of 21 lindane-production employees, the most abundant being conjugates of 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-, 2,3,5- and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol.
The mean half-life for urinary excretion of radioactivity from 14C-labeled lindane administered intravenously to 6 volunteers was reported to be 26 hours.
Exposure to lindane is among the three insecticide exposures reported to be positively associated with farmer’s lung (hypersensitivity pneumonitis).
Epidemiological studies in the US and Iceland reported an exposure-related increased risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Substantia nigra tissues from brains of parkinsonism patients were reported to contain significantly greater amounts of lindane than those from patients with cortical Lewy body dementia, Alzheimer’s disease or patients without dementia or parkinsonism (controls).
Angerer, J., Maass, R. and Heinrich, R.: Occupational exposure to hexachlorocyclohexane. VI. Metabolism of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane in man. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health52(1): 59-67, 1983.
Blair, A., Cantor, K.P. and Zahm, S.H.: Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and agricultural use of the insecticide lindane. Am. J. Ind. Med.33(1): 82-87, 1998.
Corrigan, F.M., Weinburg, C.L., Shore, R.F., Daniel, S.E. and Mann, D.: Organochlorine insecticides in substantia nigra in Parkinson’s disease. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health59(4): 229-234.
Dick, A.P., Blain, P.G. and Williams, F.M.: The percutaneous absorption and skin distribution of lindane in man. I. In vivo studies. Hum. Exp. Toxicol.16(11): 645-651, 1997.
Drummond, L., Gillanders, E.M. and Wilson, H.K.: Plasma ?-hexachlorocyclohexane concentrations in forestry workers exposed to lindane. Br. J. Ind. Med.45(7): 493-497, 1988.
Feldmann, R.J. and Maibach, H.I.: Percutaneous penetration of some pesticides and herbicides in man. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 28: 126-132, 1974.
Hoppin, J.A., et al.: Pesticides and other agricultural factors associated with self-reported farmer’s lung among farm residents in the Agricultural Health Study. Occup. Environ. Med.64: 334-341, 2007.
No Authors: Lindane (PDF). Report on Carcinogens (latest edition); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Lindane. In, Sittig’s Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1406-1409.
Purdue, M.P., Hoppin, J.A., Blair, A., Dosemeci, M. and Alavanja, M.C.: Occupational exposure to organochlorine insecticides and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study. Int. J. Cancer120(3): 642-649, 2007.
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