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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: Synonyms vary depending upon specific compound (e.g., Lead oxide, Lead arsenate, Lead chromate)

OSHA IMIS Code Number: 1591

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 7439-92-1; 1317-36-8 (lead oxide); 7758-97-6 (lead chromate); 7784-40-9 (lead arsenate); 18454-12-1 (lead chromate oxide)

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: OF7525000

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Lead: Chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Hazard Summary - Lead Compounds: Uses, sources and potential exposure, acute and chronic health hazard information, and more



Exposure Limits and Health Effects

Exposure Limit

Limit Values

HE Codes

Health Factors and Target Organs

OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) - General Industry
See 29 CFR 1910.1025

Note: OSHA considers "lead" to mean elemental lead, all inorganic lead compounds, and a class of organic lead compounds called lead soaps. This standard does not apply to other organic lead compounds.

Note: Large nonferrous foundries (20+ employees) are required to achieve the PEL of 0.05 mg/m3 by means of engineering and work practice controls. Small nonferrous foundries (<20 employees) are required to achieve an 8-hour TWA of 0.075 mg/m3 by such controls.

0.05 mg/m3
TWA

0.03 mg/m3
Action Level

 

HE3

Nephrotoxicity

HE5

Reproductive hazards

HE7

Cumulative neurologic effects

HE12

Cumulative blood effects

OSHA PEL - Construction Industry
See 29 CFR 1926.62

0.05 mg/m3
TWA

0.03 mg/m3 
Action Level

HE3

Constipation, nausea, pallor

HE5

Reproductive risks

HE7

Nervous irritability, hyperactivity, anxiety, insomnia, headache, weakness, numbness, dizziness

OSHA PEL - Shipyard Employment
See  29 CFR 1915.1025

0.05 mg/m3 
TWA

0.03 mg/m3 
Action Level

HE3

Nephropathy, loss of kidney function, increased blood pressure

HE5

Reduced sperm count and male sterility

HE7

Subclinical and clinical peripheral neuropathy (muscle weakness, pain, and paralysis of extremities)

HE12

Disruption of hemesynthesis, anemia

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL)
See Appendix C

Note: NIOSH considers "lead" to mean metallic lead, lead oxides, and lead salts (including organic salts such as lead soaps but excluding lead arsenate).

0.05 mg/m3
TWA 

Air concentrations should be maintained so that worker blood lead remains less than 0.06 mg Pb/100 g of whole blood

HE5

Reproductive toxicity, nephrotoxicity, cardiovascular toxicity, gastrointestinal toxicity

HE7

Neurotoxicity

HE12

Hematologic toxicity

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) (2001)

0.05 mg/m3
TWA

A3; BEI

HE3

Cardiovascular toxicity, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, nephrotoxicity

HE5

Reproductive toxicity

HE7

Neurologic and neurobehavioral toxicity

HE12

Blood dyscrasias

CAL/OSHA PELs
(See also Section 5198)

0.05 mg/m3 Lead (metallic and inorganic compounds), dust and fume, (as Pb)

HE3

Cardiovascular toxicity, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, nephrotoxicity

HE5

Reproductive toxicity

HE7

Neurologic and neurobehavioral toxicity

National Toxicology Program (NTP) carcinogenic classification: Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen [7 MB PDF, 529 pages]
 
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) carcinogenic classification: Group 2B [237 KB PDF, 3 pages] (possibly carcinogenic to humans)

EPA carcinogenic classification: Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals

EPA Inhalation Reference Concentration (RfC): Not established

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Inhalation Minimal Risk Level (MRL): Not established

NIOSH Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) concentration: 100 mg/m3 (as Pb)

Notes on Other Potential Health Effects and Hazards

  1. Exposure to high levels of lead may cause miscarriage in pregnant women (ATSDR 2007).
  2. High Petrol-Lead Emission Areas (PLEA) might result in an increase in the incidence rate of brain cancer resulting from high lead exposures (Wu et al. 2012).
  3. Lead exposure below 70 mg/100 ml reduced neurobehavioral abilities, particularly visuospatial abilities and executive functions (Barth et al. 2002).
  4. Both NTP and IARC found limited evidence for carcinogenicity of lead smelter and battery industries, concluding that evidence from epidemiological studies is compatible with small increases in the risk of lung or stomach cancer (NTP 2010, IARC 2006).
  5. The OSHA lead standard targets a lead in blood level below 40 μg/dL, directing medical removal at a three test moving average of 50 μg/dL.
  6. The NTP concludes that there is sufficient evidence for adverse health effects in adults at blood Pb levels <10 μg/dL (increased blood pressure, tremor), and <5 μg/dL (kidney effects, developmental effects) as well, (NTP 2012).

Literature Basis

Date Last Revised: 12/11/2012

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:

  • sampling media: Mixed Cellulose Ester Filter (MCEF) 0.8 microns
    maximum volume: 960 Liters
    minimum volume: 480 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 2.0 L/min
    current analytical method: Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy; AAS
    method reference: OSHA Manual of Analytical Methods (OSHA ID-121)
    method classification: Fully Validated

  • alternate analytical method: Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma; ICP-AES/MS, AAS
    method reference: OSHA Manual of Analytical Methods (OSHA ID-125G, OSHA ID-206, OSHA ID-105, OSHA 1006)
    method classification: Fully Validated
    note: If the filter is not overloaded, samples may be collected up to an 8-hour period.

On-Site Sampling Techniques/Methods:

  • note: On-site surface sampling test kits are commercially available. OSHA neither endorses these kits nor recommends their use. The effectiveness and applicability of these kits are the responsibility of the user.

Wipe Sampling Method:

  • sampling media: Ghostwipe - Whatman Smear Tab filter. Moistened with Distilled Water.

** All Trademarks are the property of their respective owners.


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