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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: China clay; Clay; Hydrated aluminum silicate; Hydrite; Porcelain clay

OSHA IMIS Code Number: 1568

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 1332-58-7

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: GF1670500

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Kaolin: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):

General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Z-1 Table -- 15 mg/m3 TWA

Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards -- 15 mg/m3 TWA

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 2 mg/m3; The value is for particulate matter containing no asbestos and < 1% crystalline silica. Respirable fraction; see Appendix C, paragraph C. Appendix A4 - Not Classifiable as a Human Carcinogen

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 10 mg/m3 TWA

Health Factors

Potential Symptoms: Chronic pulmonary fibrosis; stomach granuloma; bronchitis, cough, dyspnea (breathing difficulty), pneumoconiosis, decreased pulmonary function (mild)

Health Effects: Nuisance particulates accumulation in lungs (Kaolinosis) (HE19) Cumulative lung damage (HE10)

Affected Organs: Respiratory system, stomach

Notes:

  1. Kaolin is a hydrated aluminum silicate, and its major use is in coating materials for the manufacture of glossy paper.
  2. The prevalence of kaolinosis (kaolin pneumoconiosis) among workers at a kaolin plant in Georgia kaolinosis was reported to be 5.4%. Five of 12 workers with mild kaolinosis and a history of 12-35 years of exposure to kaolin were reported to have pleural thickening.
  3. Although kaolinosis has occurred most frequently in workers who process mined kaolin for industrial use, a fatal case was reported in an industrial user (cotton textile mill worker).

Literature Basis:

  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Kaolin.
  • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Kaolin.
  • Altekruse, E.B., Chaudhary, B.A., Pearson, M.G. and Morgan, W.K.: Kaolin dust concentrations and pneumoconiosis at a kaolin mine. Thorax 39(6): 436-441, 1984.
  • Chaudhary, B.A., Kanes, G.J. and Pool, W.H.: Pleural thickening in mild kaolinosis. South. Med. J. 90(11): 1106-1109, 1997.
  • Levin, J.L., Frank, A.L., Williams, M.G., McConnell, W., Suzuki, Y. and Dodson, R.F.: Kaolinosis in a cotton mill worker. Am. J. Ind. Med. 29(2): 215-221, 1996.

Date Last Revised: 09/26/2005

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):

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