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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: Hydrocyanic acid; Prussic acid; Formonitrile; HCN

OSHA IMIS Code Number: 1440

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 74-90-8

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: MW6825000

Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 1051 117 (>20% solution); 1051 117 (anhydrous); 1613 154 (≤20% solution)

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Hydrogen Cyanide: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):

General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Z-1 Table -- 10 ppm, 11 mg/m3 TWA; Skin

Construction Industry: 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A -- 10 ppm, 11 mg/m3 TWA; Skin

Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards -- 10 ppm, 11 mg/m3 TWA; Skin

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 4.7 ppm, 5 mg/m3 Ceiling; Skin

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 4.7 ppm, 5 mg/m3 STEL; Skin

Health Factors

Carcinogenic Classification:

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Group D, not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity

NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 50 ppm

Potential Symptoms: Asphyxia and death at high levels, preceded by seizures, coma with abolished deep reflexes and dilated pupils, paralysis; weakness; dizziness; numbness; tremor; loss of visual acuity; headaches; nausea, vomiting; loss of appetite, weight loss; increased rate and depth of respiration, or slow and gasping respiration; eye irritation; rash, chemical burns on skin; enlargement of thyroid gland

Health Effects: Acute Systemic Toxicity (HE4); Cumulative systemic toxicity---weight loss (HE3); Irritation-Eyes, Skin---skin

Affected Organs: CNS, cardiovascular system, thyroid, eyes, skin

Notes:

  1. Fatal concentrations in air that have been reported for various exposure times are 109 ppm for one hour, 182 ppm for 10 minutes, and 364 ppm for 2 minutes.
  2. Neurological sequelae in survivors of acute cyanide poisoning include parkinsonism and dystonia.
  3. Regulated by OSHA under 29 CFR 1910.119 (Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals).

Literature Basis:

Date Last Revised: 06/30/2003

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:

  • sampling media: Diffusive Sampler SKC ULTRA II Passive Sampler (SKC cat. no. 590-400) with included soda lime adsorbent in a 4-mL glass screw-cap vial
    analytical solvent: Water
    sampling time: 12-240 Minutes
    current analytical method: Ion Chromatography using Electrochemical Detector
    method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA 1015)
    method classification: Fully Validated
    note: The sampler is field loaded with 600 mg of soda lime adsorbent that is included with the sampler in a 4-mL glass screw-cap vial. When sampling is complete, transfer the soda lime back to the glass vial and seal the vial with the screw cap. The device will continue to sample until properly closed. Diffusive sampler accessories used for analysis of samplers must be included with transported samples. Persons using such devices must provide sampling-site station barometric pressure and temperature to the analytical laboratory to improve accuracy of sampling results.

On-Site Sampling Techniques/Methods:

  • device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: AUER/MSA
    model/type: HCN-2, MSA P/N 803945, AUER P/N 5085-824
    sampling information: follow manufacturer's instructions
    upper measurement limit: 50 ppm
    detection limit: approx. 2 ppm
    overall uncertainty: unknown
    method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

  • device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: Gastec
    model/type: 12LL
    sampling information: 2 strokes
    upper measurement limit: 7 ppm
    detection limit: 0.05 ppm
    overall uncertainty: 16% for 0.2 to 2 ppm, 8% for 3 to 7 ppm
    method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

  • device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: Gastec
    model/type: 12L
    sampling information: 0.5 to 5 strokes
    upper measurement limit: 120 ppm
    detection limit: 0.1 ppm
    overall uncertainty: 16% for 2.5 to 20 ppm, 8% for 20 to 60 ppm
    method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

  • device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: Gastec
    model/type: 12M
    sampling information: 0.5 to 2 strokes
    upper measurement limit: 2400 ppm
    detection limit: 1 ppm
    overall uncertainty: 16% for 50 to 200 ppm, 8% for 200 to 800 ppm
    method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

  • device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: Gastec
    model/type: 12H
    sampling information: 1 stroke
    upper measurement limit: 1.6%
    detection limit: 0.005%
    overall uncertainty: 16% for 0.05 to 0.4%, 8% for 0.4 to 2%
    method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

  • device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: Matheson-Kitagawa
    model/type: 8014-112SB
    sampling information: follow manufacturer's instructions
    upper measurement limit: 100 ppm
    detection limit: approx. 0.5 ppm
    overall uncertainty: unknown
    method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

  • device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: Matheson-Kitagawa
    model/type: 8014-112SA
    sampling information: follow manufacturer's instructions
    upper measurement limit: 3.0%
    detection limit: approx. 0.01%
    overall uncertainty: unknown
    method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

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