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Synonyms: Glycerin (anhydrous); Glycerol; Glycyl alcohol; 1,2,3-Propanetriol; Trihydroxypropane
OSHA IMIS Code Number: 1363
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 56-81-5
NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: MA8050000
NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Glycerin (Mist): chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Z-1 Table -- 15 mg/m3 TWA
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 10 mg/m3 TWA
Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards -- 15 mg/m3 TWA
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): Appendix D - Substances With No Established RELs
Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin, respiratory system; cough; headache, nausea, vomiting; kidney damage; INGES. ACUTE: Also insomnia; diarrhea; fever; hemolysis, renal failure, hemoglobinuria; elevated blood glucose, diabetic coma, convulsions, paralysis.
Health Effects: Nuisance particulate (HE19)
Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, kidneys.
Date Last Revised: 09/22/2005
- Inhalation studies in rats with smoke from cigarettes without and with glycerin added as a humectant (5%) indicated no significant biological effect of the addition of glycerin.
- Glycerin is listed by the FDA as a generally recognized as safe food additive when used in accordance with good manufacturing practice (21 CFR 182.1320).
- In one study, adult plasma glycerol levels after a 12-hour fast averaged 0.1 mmol/liter. Men with an X-linked inherited mutation in glycerol kinase had an average 40-fold higher glycerol level, a higher body-mass index and waist circumference, and impaired glucose tolerance, but were otherwise reported to be apparently healthy.
Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
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- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Glycerin (Mist).
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Glycerol.
- Carmines, E.L. and Gaworski, C.L.: Toxicological evaluation of glycerin as a cigarette ingredient. Food Chem. Toxicol. 43(10): 1521-1539, 2005.
- Gaudet, D., et al.: Glycerol as a correlate of impaired glucose tolerance: dissection of a complex system by use of a simple genetic trait. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 66(5): 1558-1568. 2000.
- Heck, J.D., Gaworski, C.L., Rajendran, N. and Morrissey, R.L.: Toxicologic evaluation of humectants added to cigarette tobacco: 13-week smoke inhalation study of glycerin and propylene glycol in Fischer 344 rats. Inhal. Toxicol. 14(11): 1135-1152, 2002.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Glycerin (Mist). In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1209-1210.
Page last updated: 04/06/2006