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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: Motor fuel, Motor spirits, Natural gasoline, Petrol

OSHA IMIS Code Number: 1340

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 8006-61-9

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: LX3300000

Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 1203 128

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Gasoline: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):

General Industry: There is no PEL for gasoline in general industry in 29 CFR 1910.1000 Z-1 Table -- The composition of these materials varies greatly. The content of benzene, other aromatics and additives should be determined individually.

Construction Industry: 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A -- Footnote (A(3)) - Gasoline and/or Petroleum distillates. The composition of these materials varies greatly and thus a single TLV for all types of these materials is no longer applicable. The content of benzene, other aromatics and additives should be determined to arrive at the appropriate TLV.

Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards -- Footnote (A(3)) - Gasoline and/or Petroleum distillates. The composition of these materials varies greatly and thus a single TLV for all types of these materials is no longer applicable. The content of benzene, other aromatics and additives should be determined to arrive at the appropriate TLV.

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 300 ppm TWA; 500 ppm STEL; Appendix A3 - Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans. Note: Because of the wide variation of molecular weights of its components, the conversion of ppm to mg/m3 is approximate. The indentified components of gasoline vapor studied by McDermott and Killany have a mean molecular weight of 68. Assuming the unidentified 8% to consist of C9 hydrocarbons, the average molecular weight would be 72.5. Therefore, at 25°C and 760 torr, 300 ppm would correspond to about 900 mg/m3.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens

Literature Basis:

  • McDermott, H.J.; Killany, Jr. S.E.; Quest for a Gasoline TLV. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 39:110-117 (1978).
  • Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indicies, Sixth Edition. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1991
Health Factors

Potential Symptoms: Eye, skin, mucous membrane irritation; dermatitis; nausea; irregular heartbeat; headache, fatigue, memory loss, blurred vision, dizziness, slurred speech, loss of coordination (staggering gait), confusion, unconsciousness, seizures; death from respiratory failure. INGES ACUTE: burning sensation in mouth, throat and stomach; vomiting, diarrhea, drowsiness, intoxication; pulmonary edema (from aspiration)

Health Effects: Irritation-Eyes, Nose, Throat---Mild (HE16); CNS effects (HE7); Flammable (HE18); Potential occupational carcinogen (HE2)

Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, CNS, liver, kidneys

Notes:

  1. Certain gasoline-induced neurotoxic effects, such as ataxia, tremor or encephalopathic syndrome, have been attributed to abuse (gasoline sniffing), not to occupational exposure.
  2. Some gasoline additives (methyl tert-butyl ether, ethyl tert-butyl ether, and tert-amyl methyl ether) are metabolized in the liver mainly by cytochrome P450 2A6, which also metabolizes coumarin and nicotine.

Literature Basis:

  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Gasoline.
  • Ahmed, F.E.: Toxicology and human health effects following exposure to oxygenated or reformulated gasoline. Toxicol. Lett. 123(2-3): 89-113, 2001.
  • Burbacher, T.M.: Neurotoxic effects of gasoline and gasoline constituents. Environ. Health Perspect. 101(Suppl. 6): 133-141, 1993.
  • Caprino, L. and Togna, G.I.: Potential health effects of gasoline and its constituents: a review of current literature (1990-1997) on toxicological data. Environ. Health Perspect. 106(3): 115-125, 1998.
  • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Gasoline. Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1202-1204.
  • Ritchie, G.D., Still, K.R., Alexander, W.K., Nordholm, A.F., Wilson, C.L., Rossi, J. III and Mattie, D.R.: A review of the neurotoxicity risk of selected hydrocarbon fuels. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health B Crit. Rev. 4(3): 223-312, 2001.

Date Last Revised: 11/03/2003

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):

  • sampling media: Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
    analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
    alternate analytical solvent: (99:1) Carbon Disulfide/Dimethylformamide
    maximum volume: 10 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 0.1 L/min (TWA)
    maximum volume: 3 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 0.1 L/min (STEL)
    current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
    method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA PV2028)
    method classification: Partially Validated

Articles: Perry, Kevin. J. of Chromatographic Science. 28, Dec. 1990. Title: A GC Technique for the Analysis of Fuel Vapor Containing Oxygenates. Constituents from exhaust gas were acetaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde, isobutylene oxide, isobutryaldehyde, dimethylpropanol, tetramethyltetrahydro-furan, epoxytrimethylpentane, t-butyl methyloxetan, isopropyl dimethyloxetan. Identified from HP-1 column

On-Site Sampling Techniques/Methods:

  • device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: AUER/MSA
    model/type: Gasoline-30, MSA P/N 492870, AUER P/N 5085-898
    sampling information: follow manufacturer's instructions
    upper measurement limit: 6000 ppm
    detection limit: approximately 30 ppm
    overall uncertainty: unknown
    method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

  • device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: Gastec
    model/type: 101L
    sampling information: 1 or 2 strokes
    upper measurement limit: 2000 ppm
    detection limit: 5 ppm
    overall uncertainty: 16% for 30 to 300 ppm, 8% for 300 to 1000 ppm
    method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

  • device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: Matheson-Kitagawa
    model/type: 8014-110S
    sampling information: 1 stroke
    upper measurement limit: ~0.6%
    detection limit: approximately 0.05%
    overall uncertainty: unknown
    method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

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