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Furfuryl Alcohol

General Description

  • Synonyms: 2-Furylmethanol; 2-Hydroxymethylfuran
  • OSHA IMIS Code Number: 1330
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 98-00-0
  • NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: LU9100000
  • Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 2874 153
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Furfuryl alcohol: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

  • OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
  • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) (2017): 0.2 ppm TWA; Skin; A3
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 10 ppm (40 mg/m3) TWA; 15 ppm (60 mg/m3) STEL; Skin

Health Factors

  • NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 75 ppm
  • Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, mucous membranes; dizziness; nausea, vomiting, diarrhea; diuresis; headache; sore throat, cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, respiratory depression; INGES. ACUTE: Burning sensation, headache, nausea, unconsciousness
  • Health Effects: Irritation- Eyes, Nose, Throat, Skin ---Marked (HE14); CNS effects (HE7)
  • Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system
  • Notes:
    1. Furfuryl alcohol is a flavoring agent (Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association number 2491; Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives number 451), as well as a widely used industrial chemical in, for example, the manufacture of furan resins.
    2. Two-year rodent carcinogenicity studies by NTP with inhalation of furfuryl alcohol concentrations up to 32 ppm (i.e., below OSHA's PEL) 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, indicated some evidence of carcinogenicity in male rats (nasal) and equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity in female rats (nasal and renal). Non-neoplastic nasal lesions were also observed in rats and mice, as well as nephropathy in rats and male mice; and corneal degeneration in female mice.
    3. Rats given radiolabeled furfuryl alcohol (in corn oil) by oral gavage excreted most of the radioactivity in the urine. The major urinary metabolite (about ¾ of the dose) was the glycine conjugate of furoic acid, furoylglycine.
  • Literature Basis:
  • Date Last Revised: 11/13/2006

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
  • Porapak Q Tube (150/75 mg sections, 50/80 mesh)
  • analytical solvent: Acetone
  • maximum volume: 25 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 0.05 L/min (TWA)
  • minimum volume: 0.75 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 0.05 L/min (STEL)
  • current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
  • method reference: NIOSH Analytical Method (NIOSH 2505)
  • method classification: Fully Validated

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