- Synonyms: Diethylene Dioxide; 1,4-Dioxane; Diethylene ether; Dioxan; p-Dioxane; 1,4-Diethyleneoxide
- OSHA IMIS Code Number: 1010
- Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 123-91-1
- NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: JG8225000
- Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 1165 127
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Dioxane: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
- OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
- American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 20 ppm, 72 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A3 - Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans; (TLV listed under 1,4-Dioxane)
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 1 ppm; 3.6 mg/m3 Ceiling (30 Minutes), Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens
- Carcinogenic Classification:
- Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Group B2, probable human carcinogen
- International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Group 2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans (Dioxane)
- National Toxicology Program (NTP): Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen (PDF)
- NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 500 ppm
- Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin, nose, throat; cough, sore throat, shortness of breath; dizziness, drowsiness, headache, unconsciousness; abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting; liver damage; kidney failure; [potential occupational carcinogen].
- Health Effects: Known animal carcinogen, tumor promoter (HE2); Cumulative liver and kidney damage (HE3); Irritation-Eyes-Nose, Throat---Mild (HE16); Narcosis (HE8); Explosive, Flammable (HE18)
- Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, liver, kidneys
- Vapor/air mixtures can be explosive. Dioxane may form explosive peroxides during storage.
- Dioxane is an OSHA Select Carcinogen.
- The target organs for its carcinogenicity in animals include the liver and the nasal turbinates, but the mechanism is unknown.
- The elimination half-life of dioxane in humans is about one hour at low levels in air (≤ 50 ppm), and its primary metabolite in urine is 2-hydroxyethoxyacetic acid.
- Dioxane was detected at least twice in at least one drinking water source in California during the period, 2002-2004. Its notification level in California is 0.003 milligrams per liter.
- Literature Basis:
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Dioxane.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): 1,4-Dioxane.
- California Department of Health Services-Drinking Water Program: Information for Public Drinking Water Systems.
- Nannelli, A., De Rubertis, A., Longo, V. and Gervasi, P.G.: Effects of dioxane on cytochrome P450 enzymes in liver, kidney, lung and nasal mucosa of rat. Arch. Toxicol. 79(2): 74-82, 2005.
- No Author: 1,4-Dioxane (PDF). Report on Carcinogens (latest edition); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Dioxane. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 965-967.
- Stickney, J.A., et al.: An updated evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of 1,4-dioxane. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 38(2): 183-195, 2003.
- Date Last Revised: 11/22/2005
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
- Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
- maximum volume: 10 Liters
- maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
- current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
- analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
- alternate solvent: (95:5) Methylene Chloride:Methanol
- method reference: NIOSH Analytical Method (NIOSH 1602 (PDF))
- method classification: Fully Validated
Wipe Sampling Method:
- charcoal pad
- note: seal in glass vial for shipment
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