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Dioxane

General Description

  • Synonyms: Diethylene Dioxide; 1,4-Dioxane; Diethylene ether; Dioxan; p-Dioxane; 1,4-Diethyleneoxide
  • OSHA IMIS Code Number: 1010
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 123-91-1
  • NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: JG8225000
  • Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 1165 127
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Dioxane: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

  • OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
  • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 20 ppm, 72 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; Appendix A3 - Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans; (TLV listed under 1,4-Dioxane)
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 1 ppm; 3.6 mg/m3 Ceiling (30 Minutes), Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens

Health Factors

  • Carcinogenic Classification:
  • NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 500 ppm
  • Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin, nose, throat; cough, sore throat, shortness of breath; dizziness, drowsiness, headache, unconsciousness; abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting; liver damage; kidney failure; [potential occupational carcinogen].
  • Health Effects: Known animal carcinogen, tumor promoter (HE2); Cumulative liver and kidney damage (HE3); Irritation-Eyes-Nose, Throat---Mild (HE16); Narcosis (HE8); Explosive, Flammable (HE18)
  • Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, liver, kidneys
  • Notes:
    1. Vapor/air mixtures can be explosive. Dioxane may form explosive peroxides during storage.
    2. Dioxane is an OSHA Select Carcinogen.
    3. The target organs for its carcinogenicity in animals include the liver and the nasal turbinates, but the mechanism is unknown.
    4. The elimination half-life of dioxane in humans is about one hour at low levels in air (≤ 50 ppm), and its primary metabolite in urine is 2-hydroxyethoxyacetic acid.
    5. Dioxane was detected at least twice in at least one drinking water source in California during the period, 2002-2004. Its notification level in California is 0.003 milligrams per liter.
  • Literature Basis:
    • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Dioxane.
    • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): 1,4-Dioxane.
    • California Department of Health Services-Drinking Water Program: Information for Public Drinking Water Systems.
    • Nannelli, A., De Rubertis, A., Longo, V. and Gervasi, P.G.: Effects of dioxane on cytochrome P450 enzymes in liver, kidney, lung and nasal mucosa of rat. Arch. Toxicol. 79(2): 74-82, 2005.
    • No Author: 1,4-Dioxane (PDF). Report on Carcinogens (latest edition); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
    • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Dioxane. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 965-967.
    • Stickney, J.A., et al.: An updated evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of 1,4-dioxane. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 38(2): 183-195, 2003.
  • Date Last Revised: 11/22/2005

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
  • Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
  • maximum volume: 10 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
  • current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
  • analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
  • alternate solvent: (95:5) Methylene Chloride:Methanol
  • method reference: NIOSH Analytical Method (NIOSH 1602 (PDF))
  • method classification: Fully Validated
Wipe Sampling Method:
  • charcoal pad
  • note: seal in glass vial for shipment

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