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General Description

  • Synonyms: Dichlorobenzene; 1,4-Dichlorobenzene; p-DCB; para-Dichlorobenzene; Dichlorocide
  • OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0868
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 106-46-7
  • NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: CZ4550000
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, p-Dichlorobenzene: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

  • OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
  • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 10 ppm, 60 mg/m3 TWA; Appendix A3 - Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens

Health Factors

  • Carcinogenic Classification:
  • NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 150 ppm
  • Potential Symptoms: Eye irritation, periorbital swelling; profuse rhinitis; headache, anorexia, nausea, vomiting; weight loss; hemolytic anemia; jaundice, cirrhosis; burning sensation; drowsiness; cough, shortness of breath; In animals: liver, kidney damage; Ingestion Acute: diarrhea; [potential occupational carcinogen]
  • Health Effects: Cumulative systemic toxicity (HE3); Cataracts (Limited evidence) (HE7)
  • Affected Organs: Liver, respiratory system, eyes, kidneys, skin
  • Notes:
    1. p-Dichlorobenzene is an OSHA Select carcinogen.
    2. It is metabolized primarily in the liver by cytochrome P450 2E1 to the urinary metabolite 2,5-dichlorophenol, which is excreted both free and conjugated.
    3. Chloracne was reported in nine long-term male workers in a factory producing chlorobenzene chemicals, including p-dichlorobenzene. All nine also had a mixed polyneuropathy.
    4. One case of neuropathy (ataxia, dysarthria, limb weakness, hyporeflexia) due to chronic overuse of a moth repellant p-dichlorobenzene product at home has been reported.
  • Literature Basis:
    • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: p-Dichlorobenzene.
    • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): 1,4-Dichlorobenzene.
    • Bogaards, J.J.P., van Ommen., B., Wolf, C.R. and van Bladeren, P.J.: Human cytochrome P450 enzyme selectivities in the oxidation of chlorinated benzenes. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 132(1): 44-52, 1995.
    • Miyai, I., Hirono, N., Fujita, M. and Kameyama, M.: Reversible ataxia following chronic exposure to paradichlorobenzene. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 51(3): 453-454, 1988.
    • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Dichlorobenzenes. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 799-804.
    • Rosas Vazques, E., Campos Macias, P., Ochoa Tirado, J.G., Garcia Solana, C., Casanova, A. and Palomino Moncada, J.F.: Chloracne in the 1990s. Int. J. Dermatol. 35(9): 643-645, 1996.
    • Yoshida, T., et al.: Inhalation toxicokinetics of p-dichlorobenzene and daily absorption and internal accumulation in chronic low-level exposure to humans. Arch. Toxicol. 76(5-6): 306-315, 2002.

Date Last Revised: 05/10/2005

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
  • Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
  • analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
  • maximum volume: 3 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 0.05 L/min (TWA)
  • maximum volume: 3 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (STEL)
  • current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
  • method reference: NIOSH Analytical Method (NIOSH 1003 (PDF))
  • method classification: Partially Validated

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