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General Description

Synonyms: n-decane; decane 99+%; decyl hydride

OSHA IMIS Code Number: D166

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 124-18-5

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: HD6550000

Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 2247 128

Chemical Description and Physical Properties:

clear, colorless liquid with a gasoline-like odor
molecular weight: 142.32
vapor pressure: 0.17 kPa at 25°C
molecular formula: C10H22
boiling point: 174.2°C
melting point: -29.7°C
flash point: 46°C closed cup

Health Factors

Potential Symptoms: Eye, skin, respiratory tract irritation; headache; dizziness, stupor, incoordination; loss of appetite, nausea; dermatitis; chemical pneumonitis (from aspiration of liquid); unconsciousness; INGES ACUTE: Abdominal cramps, burning sensation, nausea, vomiting.

Health Effects: Irritation-Eye, Nose, Throat, Skin---Mild (HE16); Narcosis (HE8).

Affected Organs: Skin, respiratory system, CNS

Notes:

  1. Vapor/air mixtures of decane may be explosive at temperatures above 46°C.
  2. Decane is generally found in petroleum distillate mixtures, and it has been used as a marker for internal exposure after inhalation of white spirit solvent or dermal application of JP-8 jet fuel.
  3. Lower concentrations of n-decane are found in gasoline (0.16-0.18%) than in jet fuel (2.5% in JP-4; 3.8% in JP-8).
  4. Exposure of human volunteers to decane concentrations of 58, 204, and 580 mg/m3 for 6 hours resulted in significant concentration-related increases in irritation of mucous membranes, conjunctival polymorphonuclear leucocyte counts, sensation of odor intensity, and decreases in air quality and tear film stability.

Literature Basis:

  • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Decane.
  • Hissink, A.M., et al.: Model studies for evaluating the neurobehavioral effects of complex hydrocarbon solvents. III. PBPK modeling of white spirit constituents as a tool for integrating animal and human test data. Neurotoxicology 28(4): 751-760, July 2007.
  • Kim, D., Andersen, M.E. and Nylander-French, L.A.: Dermal absorption and penetration of jet fuel components. Toxicol. Lett. 165(1): 11-21, 2006.
  • Kjærgaard, S., Mølhave, L. and Pedersen, O.F.: Human reactions to indoor air pollutants: n-decane. Environ. Intern. 15: 473-482, 1989.
  • Lammers, J.H., et al.: Model studies for evaluating the neurobehavioral effects of complex hydrocarbon solvents. II. Neurobehavioral effects of white spirit in rat and human. Neurotoxicology 28(4): 736-750, July 2007.
  • McDougal, J.N., Pollard, D.L., Weisman, W., Garrett, C.M. and Miller, T.E.: Assessment of skin absorption and penetration of JP-8 jet fuel and its components. Toxicol. Sci. 55(2): 247-255, 2000.
  • Muhammad, F., Monteiro-Riviere, N.S. and Riviere, J.E.: Comparative in vivo toxicity of topical JP-8 jet fuel and its individual hydrocarbon components: identification of tridecane and tetradecane as key constituents responsible for dermal irritation. Toxicol. Pathol. 33(2): 258-266, 2005.
  • ZymaX Forensics: Identifying Hydrocarbons (last accessed 3/15/2005; data on decane not available online since the acquisition of ZymaX Forensics, Inc. by DPRA later in 2005).

Date Last Revised: 05/24/2007

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