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Synonyms: benzylideneactaldehyde; cinnamic aldehyde; phenylacrolein; 3-phenylacrolein; 3-phenylpropenal; 3-phenyl-2-propenal
OSHA IMIS Code Number: C615
Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 104-55-2
Chemical Description and Physical Properties:
yellowish oil with a cinnamon odor and sweet taste. Thickens on exposure to air
molecular weight: 132.17
molecular formula: C9H8O
boiling point: 246°C
melting point: -7.5°C
Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin, nose, throat; skin rash, itching; anaphylaxis (one case); INGES. ACUTE: Sore throat
Health Effects: Irritation-Eyes, Nose, Throat, Skin---Moderate (HE15); Allergic Contact Dermatitis (HE3)
Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system
- OSHA does not have a PEL for cinnamaldehyde.
- Cinnamaldehyde is listed by the FDA as a synthetic flavoring substance that is generally recognized as safe for its intended use (21 CFR 182.60). It also is an authorized denaturant for specially denatured alcohol (27 CFR 21.151).
- In vitro, human abdominal skin metabolizes cinnamaldehyde passing through it to cinnamyl alcohol (by alcohol dehydrogenase) and cinnamic acid (by aldehyde dehydrogenase) with approximately 90% efficiency within 24 hours.
- In rats, the biological half-life of cinnamaldehyde was reported to be 1.7 hours after intravenous administration, and its major urinary metabolite in both rats and mice is hippuric acid (benzoylglycine).
- Although carcinogenicity studies indicated positive effects of trans-cinnamaldehyde in some genotoxicity assays, no evidence of carcinogenicity was found in rats or mice consuming high microencapsulated doses in food for 2 years. Mice, but not rats, showed olfactory epithelial pigmentation.
- Six of 26 employees at a perfume factory had positive patch tests with cinnamaldehyde (1% in petrolatum), and 11 of 25 employees at a spice factory had positive patch tests with 2% cinnamaldehyde in petrolatum, at least four of which were assessed as allergic.
- No authors: NTP toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of trans-cinnamaldehyde (CAS No. 14371-10-9) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (feed studies). Natl. Toxicol. Program Tech. Rep. Ser. (514): 1-281, 2004.
- Adams, T.B., et al.: The FEMA GRAS assessment of cinnamyl derivatives used as flavor ingredients. Food Chem. Toxicol. 42(2): 157-185, 2004.
- Bickers, D., et al.: A toxicologic and dermatologic assessment of cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid when used as fragrance ingredients. Food Chem. Toxicol. 43(6): 799-836, 2005.
- Cocchiara, J., Letizia, C.S., Lalko, J., Lapczynski, A. and Api, A.M.: Fragrance material review on cinnamaldehyde. Food Chem. Toxicol. 43(6): 867-923, 2005.
- Diba, V.C. and Stratham, B.N.: Contact urticaria from cinnamal leading to anaphyslaxis. Contact Dermatitis 48(2): 119, 2003.
- Hooth, M.J., et al.: Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of microencapsulated trans-cinnamaldehyde in mice and rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 42(11): 1757-1768, 2004.
- Meding, B.: Skin symptoms among workers in a spice factory. Contact Dermatitis 29(4): 202-205, 1993.
- Schubert, H.-J.: Skin diseases in workers at a perfume factory. Contact Dermatitis 55(2): 81-83, 2006.
- Weibel, H. and Hansen, J.: Penetration of the fragrance compounds, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamyl alcohol, through human skin in vitro. Contact Dermatitis 20(3): 176-172, 1989.
- Yuan, J.H., Dieter, M.P., Bucher, J.R. and Jameson, C.W.: Toxicokinetics of cinnamaldehyde in F344 rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 30(12): 997-1004, 1992
Date Last Revised: 01/17/2007
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