NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards,Chlorodiphenyl (54% Chlorine): chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): TWA; Skin; Appendix A3 - Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 0.001 mg/m3 TWA; Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens [Note: The REL also applies to other PCBs.]
Health Effects: Chloracne/Cumulative liver damage (HE3)
Affected Organs: Skin, eyes, liver, reproductive system
Chlorodiphenyl is no longer produced or used in the U.S., except for limited research and development applications.
In human hepatocyte cultures, 20 µM Aroclor 1254 reportedly activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and other transcription factors, which enables the activation of hundreds of genes to increase their expression (at least two-fold), such as the genes for cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1A2, as well as causing repression of expression of hundreds of other genes (by at least 50%).
Incubation of human hepatocytes with Aroclor 1254 (≥3 µM) for 24 or more hours also increases the formation of DNA adducts.
The half-lives in blood of various components of Aroclor 1254 in female rhesus monkeys treated chronically with Aroclor 1254 ranged from 0.3-7.6 years.
Enhancement of the fecal elimination of Aroclor 1254 by chronic oral ingestion of olestra (~16 g/day for 2 years) has been suggested in one case of human intoxication in which the amount in fat tissue biopsies decreased from an initial measurement of 3200 mg/kg of fat to 56 mg/kg of fat.
Borlak, J., Hock, A., Hansen, T. and Richter, E.: DNA adducts in cultures of polychlorinated biphenyl-treated human hepatocytes. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.188(2): 81-91, 2003.
Mes, J., Arnold, D.L. and Bryce, F.: The elimination and estimated half-lives of specific polychlorinated biphenyl congeners from the blood of female monkeys after discontinuation of daily dosing with Aroclor 1254. Chemosphere30(4): 789-800, 1995.
Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 2. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 1902-1905.
Redgrave, T.G., Wallace, P., Jandacek, R.J. and Tso, P.: Treatment with a dietary fat substitute decreased Arochlor 1254 contamination in an obese diabetic male. J. Nutr. Biochem.16(6): 383-384, 2005.
Reymann, S. and Borlak, J.: Transcriptome profiling of human hepatocytes treated with Aroclor 1254 reveals transcription factor regulatory networks and clusters of regulated genes. BMC Genomics7: 217, 2006 (18 pp.).
note: Collect a sample of the bulk substance and send to the lab in a separate mailing container at the time the air samples are submitted. Indicate on the sample sheet that a bulk sample has been submitted.
Limit the amount of bulk submitted to one gram or one mL for oils and 20 g for soil.
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