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Chlorobenzene

General Description

  • Synonyms: Monochlorobenzene; Chlorobenzol; Phenyl chloride; MCB
  • OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0620
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 108-90-7
  • NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: CZ0175000
  • Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 1134 130
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Chlorobenzene: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

  • OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
  • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) (1998): 10 ppm (46 mg/m3) TWA; A3; BEI
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): Appendix D - Substances With No Established RELs

Health Factors

  • NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 1000 ppm
  • Potential Symptoms: Skin, eye, nose irritation, headache; nausea; drowsiness, incoordination, unconsciousness; CHRONIC EXPOSURE: Numbness, cyanosis, hyperesthesia (increased sensation), muscle spasms; anemia. In animals: liver, lung, kidney damage, bone marrow suppression. INGES. ACUTE: Abdominal pain
  • Health Effects: Cumulative Systemic Toxicity (HE3); Narcosis (HE8); Irritation-Eyes, Nose, Skin-Moderate (HE15).
  • Affected Organs:
  • Notes: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, CNS, liver
    1. Chlorobenzene is metabolized primarily in the liver by cytochrome P450 2E1.
    2. The major urinary metabolite is 4-chlorocatechol, with p-chlorophenol, m-chlorophenol and o-chlorophenol appearing in lesser amounts (p>m>o).
    3. EPA's oral reference dose (daily oral exposure likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime) for chlorobenzene is 0.02 mg/kg/day, and its provisional reference concentration (RfC) is 0.02 mg/m3.
    4. Germany reduced its maximum allowable concentrations of chlorobenzene at the workplace from 50 ppm to 10 ppm in 1995 because of findings of nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in animals with multiple exposures to levels up to 50 ppm.
  • Date Last Revised: 08/12/2005
  • Literature Basis:
    • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Chlorobenzene.
    • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Chlorobenzene.
    • EPA Air Toxics Website: Chlorobenzene. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
    • Arutjunov, V.D., Batsura, Ju.D., Gribova, I.A. and Kruglikov G.G.: Scanning electron-microspic and light-optic investigations of erythrocytes in toxic anaemia. Br. J. Ind. Med. 38(1): 72-75, 1981.
    • Knecht, U. and Woitowitz, H.-J.: Human toxicokinetics of inhaled monochlorobenzene: latest experimental findings regarding re-evaluation of the biological tolerance value. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Med. 73(8): 543-554, 2000.
    • National Toxicology Program: NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Chlorobenzene (CAS No. 108-90-7) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies). Natl. Toxicol. Program Tech. Rep. Ser. 261: 1-220, 1985.
    • Nedelcheva, V., Gut, I., Soucek, P. and Frantik, E.: Cytochrome P450 catalyzed oxidation of monochlorobenzene, 1,2- and 1,4-dichlorobenzene in rat, mouse, and human liver microsomes. Chem. Biol. Interact. 115(1): 53-70, 1998.
    • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Dichlorobenzenes. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 799-804.

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
  • Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
  • analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
  • alternate solvent: (99:1) Carbon Disulfide/Dimethylformamide
  • maximum volume: 10 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min
  • current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
  • method reference: NIOSH Analytical Method (NIOSH 1003)
  • method classification: Partially Validated

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