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Chlorine

General Description

  • OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0640
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 7782-50-5
  • NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: FO2100000
  • Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 1017 124
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Chlorine: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

  • OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
  • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 0.5 ppm, 1.5 mg/m3 TWA; 1 ppm, 2.9 mg/m3 STEL; Appendix A4 (Not Classifiable as a Human Carcinogen)
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 0.5 ppm TWA; 1 ppm STEL

Health Factors

  • NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 10 ppm
  • Potential Symptoms: Eye, nose, mouth, skin burns; lacrimation; rhinorrhea; coughing, choking; nausea, vomiting; substernal pain; headache; dizziness, syncope; pulmonary edema; persistent airways obstruction, bronchial hyper-responsiveness; hypoxemia; dermatitis; CNS impairment (balance, reaction time, color confusion, visual field performance, blink latency, cognition, verbal recall, adverse mood states); decreased grip strength
  • Health Effects: Lung injury (HE11); Irritation-Eyes, Nose, Throat, Bronchi, Skin---Marked (HE14); Central Nervous System Disturbances (HE7)
  • Affected Organs: Respiratory system; CNS
  • Notes:
    1. The persistent respiratory symptoms after acute exposure have been called "Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome" (RADS), and unlike occupational asthma, RADS appears to be less responsive to bronchodilator (albuterol) inhalation therapy.
  • Literature Basis:
    • (persistent respiratory symptoms)
      Bhérer, L., Cushman, R., Courteau, J.P., Quévillon, M., Côté, G., Bourbeau, J., L'Archevéque, J., Cartier, A. and Malo, J.L.: Survey of construction workers repeatedly exposed to chlorine over a three to six month period in a pulpmill. II. Follow up of affected workers by questionnaire, spirometry, and assessment of bronchial responsiveness 18 to 24 months after exposure ended. Occup. Environ. Med. 51(4): 225-228, 1994.
    • (resistance to albuterol)
      Gautrin, D., Boulet, L.P., Boutet, M., Dugas, M., Bhérer, L., L'Archevéque, J., Laviolette, M., Côté, G. and Malo, J.L.: Is reactive airways dysfunction syndrome a variant of occupational asthma? J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 93(1 Pt. 1): 12-22, 1994.
    • (CNS impairment)
      Kilburn, K.H.: Chlorine-induced damage documented by neurophysiological, neuropsychological, and pulmonary testing. Arch. Environ. Health 55(1): 31-37, 2000.
  • Date Last Revised: 05/13/2003

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
  • Midget Fritted Glass Bubbler (MFGB) containing Sulfamic Acid solution (0.1%)
  • maximum volume: 240 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min (TWA)
  • maximum volume: 15 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min (STEL or Ceiling)
  • current analytical method: Ion Specific Electrode; ISE
  • analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
  • method reference: OSHA Analytical Method (OSHA ID-101)
  • method classification: Fully Validated
  • note: Submit as separate sample. If Chlorine containing compounds (as available Chlorine) are also expected, use a PTFE membrane/polypropylene cassette, followed by a Midget Fritted Glass Bubbler (MFGB) containing 15 mL 0.1% Sulfamic Acid for Chlorine Collection. Sample analyzed for equivalent chlorine levels. After sampling transfer membrane to separate vial containing 5 mL 0.1% Sulfamic acid. Seal and ship to the Salt Lake Technical Center.
On-Site Sampling Techniques/Methods:
  • Detector Tube
  • manufacturer: Matheson-Kitagawa
  • model/type: 8014-109SB
  • sampling information: follow manufacturer's instructions
  • upper measurement limit: 10 ppm
  • detection limit: approx. 0.1 ppm
  • overall uncertainty: unknown
  • method reference: on-site air secondary (SEI Certified)
  • Detector Tube
  • manufacturer: Gastec
  • model/type: 8La
  • sampling information: 0.5 to 5 strokes
  • upper measurement limit: 16 ppm
  • detection limit: 0.05 ppm
  • overall uncertainty: 16.4% for 0.5 to 2 ppm, 8.2% for 2 to 8 ppm
  • method reference: on-site air secondary (SEI Certified)

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