- Synonyms: Carbon chloride; Carbon tet; Freon® 10; Halon® 104; Tetrachloromethane
- OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0570
- Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 56-23-5
- NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: FG4900000
- Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 1846 151
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Carbon Tetrachloride: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more
- OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
- American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) (1990): 5 ppm (31 mg/m3) TWA; 10 ppm (63 mg/m3) STEL; Skin; A2
- National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 2 ppm (12.6 mg/m3) STEL (60 Minutes); Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens
- Carcinogenic Classification:
- Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Group B2, probable human carcinogen
- International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Group 2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans (Carbon Tetrachloride)
- NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 200 ppm
- Potential Symptoms: Irritation of eyes, skin; CNS depression; nausea, vomiting; liver, kidney damage; drowsiness, dizziness, incoordination; dermatitis; [potential occupational carcinogen]; Ingestion Acute: Abdominal pain; diarrhea.
- Health Effects: Cumulative liver damage (HE3); Teratogen (HE5)
- Affected Organs: CNS, eyes, lungs, liver, kidneys, skin
- Carbon tetrachloride is an OSHA Select Carcinogen.
- EPA's oral reference dose (daily oral exposure likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime) of carbon tetrachloride is 0.0007 mg/kg/day.
- Cytochrome P450 2E1 metabolizes carbon tetrachloride to toxic derivatives, such as the reactive trichloromethyl radical. Known metabolites include phosgene, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, chloroform, and hexachloroethane.
- Greater toxicity of carbon tetrachloride has been reported in heavy drinkers, possibly due to induction of additional CYP2E1 enzyme by chronic ethanol consumption.
- Literature Basis:
- NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Carbon Tetrachloride.
- International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Carbon tetrachloride.
- EPA Air Toxics Website: Carbon tetrachloride. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
- No Author: Carbon tetrachloride. IARC Monogr. Eval. Carcinog. Risks Hum. 71 (pt. 2): 401-432, 1999.
- No Author: Carbon Tetrachloride. Report on Carcinogens (latest edition); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
- Manno, M. and Rezzadore, M.: Critical role of ethanol abuse in carbon tetrachloride poisoning. Lancet 343(891): 232, 1994.
- Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Carbon Tetrachloride. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 501-504.
- Takahashi, S., et al.: Increased cytotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride in a human hepatoma cell line overexpressing cytochrome P450 2E1. J. Int. Med. Res. 30(4): 400-405, 2002.
- Zangar, R.C., Benson, J.M., Burnett, V.L. and Springer, D.L.: Cytochrome P450 2E1 is the primary enzyme responsible for low-dose carbon tetrachloride metabolism in human liver microsomes. Chem. Biol. Interact. 125(3): 233-243, 2000.
- Date Last Revised: 11/03/2005
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
- Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
- analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
- maximum volume: 15 Liters
- maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (TWA)
- minimum time: 5 Minutes
- maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (Ceiling)
- minimum time: 5 Minutes
- maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (Peak)
- current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
- method reference: NIOSH Analytical Method (NIOSH 1003)
- method classification: Partially Validated
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