Carbon tetrachloride is an OSHA Select Carcinogen.
EPA's oral reference dose (daily oral exposure likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime) of carbon tetrachloride is 0.0007 mg/kg/day.
Cytochrome P450 2E1 metabolizes carbon tetrachloride to toxic derivatives, such as the reactive trichloromethyl radical. Known metabolites include phosgene, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, chloroform, and hexachloroethane.
Greater toxicity of carbon tetrachloride has been reported in heavy drinkers, possibly due to induction of additional CYP2E1 enzyme by chronic ethanol consumption.
No Author: Carbon Tetrachloride (PDF). Report on Carcinogens (latest edition); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
Manno, M. and Rezzadore, M.: Critical role of ethanol abuse in carbon tetrachloride poisoning. Lancet343(891): 232, 1994.
Pohanish, R.P. (editor): Carbon Tetrachloride. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 501-504.
Takahashi, S., et al.: Increased cytotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride in a human hepatoma cell line overexpressing cytochrome P450 2E1. J. Int. Med. Res.30(4): 400-405, 2002.
Zangar, R.C., Benson, J.M., Burnett, V.L. and Springer, D.L.: Cytochrome P450 2E1 is the primary enzyme responsible for low-dose carbon tetrachloride metabolism in human liver microsomes. Chem. Biol. Interact.125(3): 233-243, 2000.
Date Last Revised: 11/03/2005
Monitoring Methods used by OSHA
Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
maximum volume: 15 Liters
maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (TWA)
minimum time: 5 Minutes
maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (Ceiling)
minimum time: 5 Minutes
maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (Peak)
current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
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