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Carbon Disulfide

General Description

  • Synonyms: Carbon bisulfide
  • OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0540
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 75-15-0
  • NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: FF6650000
  • Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 1131 131
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Carbon disulfide: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

  • OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
  • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) (2005): 1 ppm (3.13 mg/m3) TWA; Skin; A4; BEI
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 1 ppm, (3 mg/m3) TWA; 10 ppm, (30 mg/m3) STEL; Skin

Health Factors

  • NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 500 ppm
  • Potential Symptoms: Dizziness, headaches, poor sleeping, fatigue, nervousness; anorexia, low-weight; mood changes, psychosis; polyneuropathy; Parkinson-like syndrome; ocular changes (blurred vision, retinal microaneurisms, reduced color discrimination); coronary heart disease; gastritis; kidney, liver damage; eye, skin burns; dermatitis; decreased sperm count and libido in men; menstrual disturbances in women
  • Health Effects: CNS Damage (HE7); Reproductive Impairment (HE5); Chronic effects on heart, kidney, liver, skin (HE3)
  • Affected Organs: CNS, PNS, cardiovascular system, eyes, kidneys, liver, skin
  • Notes:
    1. Measurement of carbon disulfide-induced cross-linking of hemoglobin has been proposed as a biomarker of chronic exposure that is measurable before symptoms of toxicity occur, but this is still in the experimental stage.
  • Literature Basis:
    • Abadin, H. and Liccione, J.J.: Toxicological Profile for Carbon Disulfide (Update). Atlanta: ATSDR/PHS/USDHHS (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1996-739-324, 1996.
    • EPA Air Toxics Website: Carbon disulfide. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network.
    • (reduced color discrimination) Vanhoorne, M., De Rouck, A. and Bacquer, D.: Epidemiological study of the systemic ophthalmological effects of carbon disulfide. Arch. Environ. Health 51(3): 181-188, 1996.
    • Wang, C., Tan, X., Bi, Y., Su, Y., Yan, J., Ma, S., He, J., Braeckman, L., De Bacquer, D., Wang, F. and Vanhoorne, M.: Cross-sectional study of the ophthalmological effects of carbon disulfide in Chinese viscose workers. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health 205(5) : 367-372, 2002.
    • (proposed biomarker) Valentine, W.M., Amarnath, V., Amarnath, K., Erve, J.C., Graham, D.G., Morgan, D.L. and Sills, R.C.: Covalent modification of hemoglobin by carbon disulfide: III. A potential biomarker of effect. Neurotoxicology 19(1): 99-107, 1997.
  • Date Last Revised: 05/09/2003

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
  • Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
  • maximum volume: 25 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (TWA)
  • maximum volume: 3 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (STEL)
  • minimum time: 30 Minutes
  • maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (Ceiling)
  • minimum time: 5 Minutes
  • maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (Peak)
  • current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FPD
  • analytical solvent: Toluene
  • alternate solvent: (95:5) Methylene Chloride/Methanol
  • method reference: OSHA Modified NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (OSHA Modified NIOSH 1600)
  • method classification: Fully Validated
On-Site Sampling Techniques/Methods:
  • Detector Tube
  • manufacturer: Matheson-Kitagawa
  • model/type: 8014-141SB
  • sampling information: follow manufacturer's instructions
  • upper measurement limit: 50 ppm
  • detection limit: approx. 1 ppm
  • overall uncertainty: unknown
  • method reference: on-site air secondary (SEI Certified)
  • Detector Tube
  • manufacturer: Gastec
  • model/type: 13
  • sampling information: 0.5 to 4 strokes
  • upper measurement limit: 100 ppm
  • detection limit: 0.3 ppm
  • overall uncertainty: 16.4% for 2.5 to 10 ppm, 8.2% for 10 to 50 ppm
  • method reference: on-site air secondary (SEI Certified)
Wipe Sampling Method:
  • Charcoal pad, seal in glass vial for shipment

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