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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: Carbon bisulfide

OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0540

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 75-15-0

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: FF6650000

Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 1131 131

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Carbon disulfide: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):

General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1000 Z-2 Table -- 20 ppm TWA; 30 ppm Ceiling for 30 min; 100 ppm Peak

Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards -- 20 ppm, 60 mg/m3 TWA; Skin

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 10 ppm, 31 mg/m3 TWA; Skin; BEI

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 1 ppm, 3 mg/m3 TWA; 10 ppm, 30 mg/m3 STEL; Skin

Health Factors

NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 500 ppm

Potential Symptoms: Dizziness, headaches, poor sleeping, fatigue, nervousness; anorexia, low-weight; mood changes, psychosis; polyneuropathy; Parkinson-like syndrome; ocular changes (blurred vision, retinal microaneurisms, reduced color discrimination); coronary heart disease; gastritis; kidney, liver damage; eye, skin burns; dermatitis; decreased sperm count and libido in men; menstrual disturbances in women

Health Effects: CNS Damage (HE7); Reproductive Impairment (HE5); Chronic effects on heart, kidney, liver, skin (HE3)

Affected Organs: CNS, PNS, cardiovascular system, eyes, kidneys, liver, skin


  1. Measurement of carbon disulfide-induced cross-linking of hemoglobin has been proposed as a biomarker of chronic exposure that is measurable before symptoms of toxicity occur, but this is still in the experimental stage.

Literature Basis:

  • Abadin, H. and Liccione, J.J.: Toxicological Profile for Carbon Disulfide (Update). Atlanta: ATSDR/PHS/USDHHS (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1996-739-324, 1996.
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Technology Transfer Network Air Toxics Website: Carbon disulfide
  • (reduced color discrimination)
    Vanhoorne, M., De Rouck, A. and Bacquer, D.: Epidemiological study of the systemic ophthalmological effects of carbon disulfide. Arch. Environ. Health 51(3): 181-188, 1996.
  • Wang, C., Tan, X., Bi, Y., Su, Y., Yan, J., Ma, S., He, J., Braeckman, L., De Bacquer, D., Wang, F. and Vanhoorne, M.: Cross-sectional study of the ophthalmological effects of carbon disulfide in Chinese viscose workers. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health 205(5) : 367-372, 2002.
  • (proposed biomarker)
    Valentine, W.M., Amarnath, V., Amarnath, K., Erve, J.C., Graham, D.G., Morgan, D.L. and Sills, R.C.: Covalent modification of hemoglobin by carbon disulfide: III. A potential biomarker of effect. Neurotoxicology 19(1): 99-107, 1997.

Date Last Revised: 05/09/2003

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):

  • sampling media: Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh)
    analytical solvent: Toluene
    alternate solvent: (95:5) Methylene Chloride/Methanol
    maximum volume: 25 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (TWA)
    maximum volume: 3 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (STEL)
    minimum time: 30 Minutes
    maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (Ceiling)
    minimum time: 5 Minutes
    maximum flow rate: 0.2 L/min (Peak)
    current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FPD
    method reference: OSHA Modified NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (OSHA Modified NIOSH 1600 [24 KB PDF, 4 pages])
    method classification: Fully Validated

On-Site Sampling Techniques/Methods:

  • device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: Matheson-Kitagawa
    model/type: 8014-141SB
    sampling information: follow manufacturer’s instructions
    upper measurement limit: 50 ppm
    detection limit: approx. 1 ppm
    overall uncertainty: unknown
    method reference: on-site air secondary (SEI Certified)

    device: Detector Tube
    manufacturer: Gastec
    model/type: 13
    sampling information: 0.5 to 4 strokes
    upper measurement limit: 100 ppm
    detection limit: 0.3 ppm
    overall uncertainty: 16.4% for 2.5 to 10 ppm, 8.2% for 10 to 50 ppm
    method reference: on-site air secondary (SEI Certified)

Wipe Sampling Method:

  • sampling media: Charcoal pad, seal in glass vial for shipment

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