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General Description

  • Synonyms: Biethylene; Bivinyl; 1,3-Butadiene; Divinyl; Erythrene; Vinylethylene
  • OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0410
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 106-99-0
  • NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: EI9275000
  • Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 1010 116P
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, 1,3-Butadiene: Chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

Health Factors

  • Carcinogenic Classification:
  • NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 2,000 ppm [LEL]
  • Potential Symptoms: Eye, nose, throat irritation; nausea; drowsiness, vertigo, lightheadedness, fatigue, blurred vision, unconsciousness; bradycardia, hypotension; frostbite (on contact with liquid)
  • Health Effects: Eye, Nose, Throat---Mild (HE16), Suspected human carcinogen, mutagen (HE2); central nervous system disturbances (HE8); Explosive, Flammable (HE18)
  • Affected Organs: Eyes, respiratory system, CNS, reproductive system
  • Notes:
    1. IDLH is 10% of the lower explosive limit of 2%.
    2. Metabolized by cytochrome P450 2E1 (and others) to genotoxic epoxide metabolites. Since ethanol is an inducer of the CYP2E1 isozyme, use of alcoholic beverages could enhance toxicity. Smoking also induces CYP2E1.
    3. Hemoglobin adducts of two reactive metabolites have been suggested as biomarkers of occupational exposure. Piping material for this gas must not contain more than 63% copper, to prevent the formation of shock-sensitive explosive compounds.
  • Literature Basis:
    • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: 1,3-Butadiene.
    • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): 1,3-Butadiene.
    • Technology Transfer Network Air Toxics Website: 1,3-Butadiene.
    • Begemann, P., Sram, R.J. and Neumann, H.G.: Hemoglobin adducts of epoxybutene in workers occupationally exposed to 1,3-butadiene. Arch. Toxicol. 74(11): 680-687, 2001.
    • Benowitz, N.L., Peng, M. and Jacob, P., III: Effects of cigarette smoking and carbon monoxide on chlorzoxazone and caffeine metabolism. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 74(5): 468-474, 2003.
    • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): 1,3-Butadiene. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 384-386.
  • Date Last Revised: 04/19/2012

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method
  • Coated Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh); Coating is 10% (w/w) 4-t-Butylcatechol.
  • maximum volume: 3 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 0.05 L/min (TWA & STEL)
  • current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
  • analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
  • method reference: OSHA Manual of Analytical Methods (OSHA 56)
  • method classification: Fully Validated
  • note: Ship samples under refrigeration
  • Two Charcoal Tubes in series (400 mg tube (front) followed by 200 mg tube (back); 20/40 mesh)
  • maximum volume: 25 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 0.5 L/min
  • current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
  • analytical solvent: Methylene Chloride
  • method reference: NIOSH Analytical Method (NIOSH 1024 (PDF))
  • method classification: Fully Validated
  • note: Separate front and back tubes and ship samples to laboratory at -4°C

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