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Chemical Sampling Information (CSI)
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General Description

Synonyms: Biethylene; Bivinyl; 1,3-Butadiene; Divinyl; Erythrene; Vinylethylene

OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0410

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 106-99-0

NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: EI9275000

Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Guide: 1010 116P

NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, 1,3-Butadiene: Chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
General Industry: 29 CFR 1910.1051 -- 1 ppm TWA; 5 ppm STEL

Construction Industry: 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A -- 1 ppm TWA; 5 ppm STEL (See 29 CFR 1910.1051; 29 CFR 1910.19(l))

Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards -- 1 ppm TWA; 5 ppm STEL (See 29 CFR 1910.1051; 29 CFR 1910.19(l))
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 2 ppm, 4.4 mg/m3 TWA; Appendix A2 - Suspected Human Carcinogen (TLV listed under 1,3-Butadiene)

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): Appendix A - NIOSH Potential Occupational Carcinogens

Health Factors

Carcinogenic Classification:
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Group 1 - Carcinogenic to humans [810 KB PDF, 184 pages]

National Toxicology Program (NTP): Group 1 - Known to be human carcinogen [135 KB PDF, 3 pages]
NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 2,000 ppm [LEL]

Potential Symptoms: Eye, nose, throat irritation; nausea; drowsiness, vertigo, lightheadedness, fatigue, blurred vision, unconsciousness; bradycardia, hypotension; frostbite (on contact with liquid)

Health Effects: Eye, Nose, Throat---Mild (HE16), Suspected human carcinogen, mutagen (HE2); central nervous system disturbances (HE8); Explosive, Flammable (HE18)

Affected Organs: Eyes, respiratory system, CNS, reproductive system

  1. IDLH is 10% of the lower explosive limit of 2%.
  2. Metabolized by cytochrome P450 2E1 (and others) to genotoxic epoxide metabolites. Since ethanol is an inducer of the CYP2E1 isozyme, use of alcoholic beverages could enhance toxicity. Smoking also induces CYP2E1.
  3. Hemoglobin adducts of two reactive metabolites have been suggested as biomarkers of occupational exposure. Piping material for this gas must not contain more than 63% copper, to prevent the formation of shock-sensitive explosive compounds.
Date Last Revised: 04/19/2012

Literature Basis:
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: 1,3-Butadiene.
  • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): 1,3-Butadiene.
  • Technology Transfer Network Air Toxics Website: 1,3-Butadiene.
  • Begemann, P., Sram, R.J. and Neumann, H.G.: Hemoglobin adducts of epoxybutene in workers occupationally exposed to 1,3-butadiene. Arch. Toxicol. 74(11): 680-687, 2001.
  • Benowitz, N.L., Peng, M. and Jacob, P., III: Effects of cigarette smoking and carbon monoxide on chlorzoxazone and caffeine metabolism. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 74(5): 468-474, 2003.
  • Pohanish, R.P. (editor): 1,3-Butadiene. In, Sittig's Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, Fourth Ed., Vol. 1. Norwich, NY: Noyes Publications, William Andrew Publishing, 2002, pp. 384-386.

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
  • sampling media: Coated Charcoal Tube (100/50 mg sections, 20/40 mesh); Coating is 10% (w/w) 4-t-Butylcatechol.
    analytical solvent: Carbon Disulfide
    maximum volume: 3 Liters   
    maximum flow rate: 0.05 L/min (TWA & STEL)
    current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
    method reference: OSHA Manual of Analytical Methods (OSHA 56)
    method classification: Fully Validated
    note: Ship samples under refrigeration

  • sampling media: Two Charcoal Tubes in series (400 mg tube (front) followed by 200 mg tube (back); 20/40 mesh)
    analytical solvent: Methylene Chloride
    maximum volume: 25 Liters
    maximum flow rate: 0.5 L/min
    current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/FID
    method reference: NIOSH Analytical Method (NIOSH 1024) [531 KB PDF, 8 pages]
    method classification: Fully Validated
    note:Separate front and back tubes and ship samples to laboratory at -4°C
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