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General Description

  • OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0390
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 7726-95-6
  • NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: EF9100000
  • Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 1744 154
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Bromine: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

  • OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL):
  • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 0.1 ppm, 0.66 mg/m3 TWA; 0.2 ppm, 1.3 mg/m3 STEL
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 0.1 ppm TWA; 0.3 ppm STEL

Health Factors

  • NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 3 ppm
  • Potential Symptoms: Dizziness, headaches; eye irritation, lacrimation; epistaxis (nosebleed); bronchospasm, shortness of breath, coughing, chest pain or tightness; feeling of oppression; pulmonary edema; pneumonitis; reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS); abdominal pain; diarrhea; measle-like eruptions; skin burns
  • Health Effects: Irritation-Eye, Nose, Throat, Bronchi, Skin-Marked (HE14) Acute lung damage/edema (HE11)
  • Affected Organs: Respiratory system, eyes, skin, CNS
  • Notes:
    1. RADS is the persistence or recurrence of asthma-like symptoms lasting long after the exposure.
    2. The bromination of tyrosine to form 3-bromotyrosine in lung proteins by eosinophil peroxidase is reportedly increased in asthmatics, but its relevance to effects of bromine inhalation is unknown.
    3. A study of chemical burns in 173 patients admitted to a hospital burn unit indicated bromine and its compounds to be the most frequent cause.
  • Literature Basis:
    • (RADS following bromine exposure) Burns, M.J. and Linden, C.H.: Another hot tub hazard. Toxicity secondary to bromine and hydrobromic acid exposure. Chest 111(3): 816-819, 1997.
    • Woolf, A. and Shannon, M.: Reactive airways dysfunction and systemic complaints after mass exposure to bromine. Environ. Health Perspect. 107(6): 507-507, 1999.
    • (bromination of lung proteins) Wu, W., Samoszuk, M.K., Comhair, S.A., Thomassen, M.J., Farver, C.F., Dweik, R.A., Kavuru, M.S., Erzurum, S.C. and Hazen, S.L.: Eosinophils generate brominating oxidants in allergen-induced asthma. J. Clin. Invest. 105(10): 1455-1463, 2000.
    • Aldridge, R.E., Chan, T., van Dalen, C.J., Senthilmohan, R., Winn, M., Venge, P., Town, G.I. and Kettle, A.J.: Eosinophil peroxidase produces hypobromous acid in the airways of stable asthmatics. Free Rad. Biol. Med. 33(6): 847-856, 2002.
    • (burns from bromine) Singer, A., Sagi, A., Ben Meir, P. and Rosenberg, L.: Chemical burns: our 10-year experience. Burns 18(3): 250-252, 1992.
  • Date Last Revised: 05/15/2003

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
  • Midget Fritted Glass Bubbler (MFGB) containing 10 mL 0.003 M NaHCO3/0.0024 M Na2CO3
  • maximum volume: 30 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 0.5 L/min (TWA)
  • maximum volume: 7.5 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 0.5 L/min (STEL)
  • current analytical method: Ion Chromatography; IC
  • method reference: OSHA Manual of Analytical Methods (OSHA ID-108)
  • method classification: Partially Validated
  • note: Submit as a separate sample.
Secondary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SAM2):
  • Detector Tube
  • company: Matheson-Kitagawa
  • model/type: 8014-114
  • sampling information: follow manufacturer's instructions
  • upper measurement limit: 20 ppm
  • detection limit: approximately 1 ppm
  • overall uncertainty: unknown
  • method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)
  • Detector Tube
  • company: Gastec
  • model/type: 8LA
  • sampling information: 4 strokes
  • upper measurement limit: 0.8 ppm
  • detection limit: 0.05 ppm
  • overall uncertainty: unknown
  • method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)
  • Detector Tube
  • company: Auer/MSA
  • model/type: Cl2-0.2, MSA P/N 803944, AUER P/N 5085-801
  • sampling information: follow manufacturer's instructions
  • upper measurement limit: 3 ppm
  • detection limit: 0.2 ppm
  • overall uncertainty: unknown
  • method reference: on-site air secondary (manufacturer)

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