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General Description

  • Synonyms: 2-Chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine; 6-Chloro-N-ethyl-N'- (1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine
  • OSHA IMIS Code Number: 0295
  • Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number: 1912-24-9
  • NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) Identification Number: XY5600000
  • Department of Transportation Regulation Number (49 CFR 172.101) and Emergency Response Guidebook: 2763 151 (triazine pesticide)
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Atrazine: chemical description, physical properties, potentially hazardous incompatibilities, and more

Exposure Limits

  • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV): 5 mg/m3 TWA; Appendix A4 - Not Classifiable as a Human Carcinogen
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Limit (REL): 5 mg/m3 TWA

Health Factors

  • Carcinogenic Classification:
  • Potential Symptoms: Eye, skin irritation; dermatitis, skin sensitization; dyspnea, lassitude, incoordination, salivation; hypothermia; liver injury.
  • Health Effects: Irritation-Eyes---Marked (HE14); Irritation Skin---Mild to Moderate (HE16); Contact dermatitis (HE3).
  • Affected Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system, CNS, liver.
  • Notes:
    1. OSHA does not have a PEL for atrazine.
    2. Atrazine is a Restricted Use Pesticide (may be purchased and used only by certified applicators) and is perhaps the most extensively used herbicides in the U.S. (e.g., corn, sugarcane and residential lawns).
    3. Some animal studies indicate that atrazine may disrupt hormonal control of various maturational processes, but relevance to human health has not been established. A possible effect of human exposure on semen quality (concentration, morphology, motility) has been suggested.
    4. Concerns about the potential hormonal effects of atrazine have led to its banning in Germany, France, Italy and Sweden (Rogers, 2003).
    5. Atrazine is metabolized by N-dealkylation and conjugation. Cytochrome P450 1A2 is likely involved in both dealkylation steps. The major metabolite in urine is bi-dealkylated.
  • Literature Basis:
    • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: Atrazine.
    • International Chemical Safety Cards (WHO/IPCS/ILO): Atrazine.
    • Catenacci, G., Barbieri, F., Bersani, M., Ferioli, A., Cottica, D. and Maroni, M.: Biological monitoring of human exposure to atrazine. Toxicol. Lett. 69(2): 217-222, 1993.
    • Cooper, R.L., Stoker, T.E., Tyrey, L., Goldman, J.M. and McElroy, W.K.: Atrazine disrupts the hypothalamic control of pituitary-ovarian function. Toxicol. Sci. 53(2): 297-307, 2000.
    • Lang, D.H., Lettie, A.E. and Bocker, R.H.: Identification of enzymes involved in the metabolism of atrazine, terbuthylazine, ametryne, and terbutryne in human liver microsomes. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 10(9): 1037-1044, 1997.
    • Rogers, M.D.: Risk analysis under uncertainty, the Precautionary Principle, and the new EU chemicals strategy. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 37(3): 370-381, 2003.
    • Stoker, T.E., Guidici, D.L., Laws, S.C. and Cooper, R.L.: The effects of atrazine metabolites on puberty and thyroid function in the male Wistar rat. Toxicol. Sci. 67(2): 198-206, 2002.
    • Sullivan, K.B. and Spence, K.M.: Effects of sublethal concentrations of atrazine and nitrate on metamorphosis of the African clawed frog. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 22(3): 627-635, 2003.
    • Swan, S.H., et al.: Semen quality in relation to biomarkers of pesticide exposure. Environ. Health Perspect. 111(12): 1478-1484, 2003.
  • Date Last Revised: 11/23/2004

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method (SLC1):
  • Glass Fiber Filter (37 mm)
  • maximum volume: 240 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min
  • current analytical method: High Performance Liquid Chromatography; HPLC/UV
  • analytical solvent: Acetonitrile
  • method reference: OSHA SLTC In-House File
  • method classification: Not Validated
  • analytical condition: Zorbax ODS column; 55% methanol 45% water; 1.0 mL/min; 254 nm detection; D.L. 2.5 ug/sample; C/P WEB 7-83
  • Glass Fiber Filter (37 mm)
  • maximum volume: 200 Liters
  • maximum flow rate: 1.0 L/min
  • current analytical method: Gas Chromatography; GC/NPD
  • analytical solvent: Ethyl Acetate
  • method reference: OSHA SLTC In-House File
  • method classification: Not Validated
Wipe Sampling Method:
  • Glass Fiber Filter
Bulk Method:
  • Limit the amount of bulk submitted to one gram or one mL.

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