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Acetone

General Description

Synonyms: Dimethyl ketone; Ketone propane; 2-Propanone

OSHA IMIS code: 0040

CAS number: 67-64-1

Monitoring Methods used by OSHA

Primary Laboratory Sampling/Analytical Method:
  • Carbosieve® S-III tube (130/65mg sections, 60/80 mesh)
  • recommended maximum volume: 3 L
  • recommended maximum flow rate: 0.05 L/min
  • current analytical method: gas chromatography; GC/NPD
  • analytical solvent: (99:1) carbon disulfide:dimethylformamide
  • method reference: OSHA 69 (fully validated)

Exposure Limits and Health Effects (Updated September 6, 2012)

Standard Set By Exposure Limit Health Effect Codes -- Health Effects and Target Organs
OSHA PEL - General Industry
See 29 CFR 1910.1000 Table Z-1
1000 ppm (2400 mg/m3) TWA HE16 -- slight eye, nose, and respiratory irritation
OSHA PEL - Construction Industry
See 29 CFR 1926.55 Appendix A
1000 ppm (2400 mg/m3) TWA HE16 -- slight eye, nose, and respiratory irritation
OSHA PEL - Shipyard Employment
See 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards
1000 ppm (2400 mg/m3) TWA HE16 -- slight eye, nose, and respiratory irritation
NIOSH REL 250 ppm (590 mg/m3) TWA HE16 -- eye, skin, and respiratory irritation
ACGIH TLV® (2014) 250 ppm (594 mg/m3) TWA
500 ppm (1187 mg/m3) STEL
A4
HE7 -- headache, dizziness, light-headedness, weakness, incoordination, sleepiness
target organs -- brain, central nervous system
HE8 -- narcosis
HE12 -- hematologic effects
HE16 -- eye, skin, and respiratory irritation
CAL/OSHA PELs 500 ppm (1200 mg/m3) TWA
3,000 ppm Ceiling
750 ppm (1780 mg/m3) STEL
HE16 -- eye and respiratory irritation

Carcinogenic classification:

EPA Inhalation Reference Concentration (RfC): Not established

ATSDR Inhalation Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs): 26 ppm (acute); 13 ppm (intermediate); 13 ppm (chronic)

NIOSH IDLH concentration: 2500 ppm (10% LEL)

Notes on other potential health effects and hazards:

  1. Vapor/air mixtures of acetone may be explosive (NIOSH/IPCS 1994).
  2. EPA's oral reference dose (daily oral exposure likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime) for acetone is 0.9 mg/kg/day based on kidney effects (EPA 2003; Dietz et al. 1991). Data were considered insufficient to recommend a reference concentration (EPA 2003).
  3. Occupational exposures of acetone may be high enough to produce ketosis in some workers (ATSDR 1994).
  4. Odor and irritation thresholds may be substantially higher in acetone-exposed employees compared to those not exposed, due to sensory adaptation (Wysocki et al. 1997).

Partial reference list:

  • ACGIH: Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) - Acetone. 2016.
  • ATSDR: Toxicological Profile for Acetone. May 1994.
  • California Occupational Safety & Health Standards Board Initial and Final Statement of Reasons. July 6, 2006.
  • Dietz, DD, Leininger, JR, Rauckman, EJ, et al.: Toxicity studies of acetone administered in the drinking water of rodents. Fund. Appl. Toxicol. 17:347-360, 1991.
  • EPA: Integrated Risk Information System - Acetone (CASRN 67-64-1). 2003.
  • NIOSH: Criteria for a Recommended Standard - Occupational Exposure to Ketones. June 1978.
  • NIOSH: Occupational Health Guideline for Acetone. 1988.
  • NIOSH/CEC/IPCS: International Chemical Safety Cards - Acetone. April 22, 1994.
  • Wysocki, C.J., Dalton, P., Brody, M.J. and Lawley, H.J.: Acetone odor and irritation thresholds obtained from acetone-exposed factory workers and from control (occupationally unexposed) subjects. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 58(10): 704-711, 1997.

Chemical Sampling Information

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