Warehousing

Standards

This section highlights OSHA standards and enforcement initiatives relevant to warehousing and storage. It also provides national consensus standards and recommendations from professional organizations.

OSHA Standards

Warehousing hazards are addressed in specific standards for general industry (29 CFR 1910).

In addition, Section 5(a)(1) of the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act, often referred to as the General Duty Clause, requires employers to "furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees." Employers can be cited for violation of this section if a recognized serious hazard exists in their workplace and the employer does not take reasonable steps to prevent or abate the hazard.

General Industry (29 CFR 1910)
General Industry (29 CFR 1910)
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1910 Subpart D - Walking-Working Surfaces

1910.22, General requirements.

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1910.23, Ladders.

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1910.25, Stairways.

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1910.26, Dockboards.

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1910.28, Duty to have fall protection and falling object protection.

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1910.29, Fall protection systems and falling object protection-criteria and practices.

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1910.30, Training requirements.

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1910 Subpart E - Exit Routes and Emergency Planning

1910.37, Maintenance, safeguards, and operational features for exit routes.

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1910.38, Emergency action plans.

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1910.39, Fire prevention plans.

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1910 Subpart F - Powered Platforms, Manlifts, and Vehicle-Mounted Work Platforms

1910.68, Manlifts.

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1910 Subpart G - Occupational Health and Environmental Control

1910.94, Ventilation.

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1910.95, Occupational noise exposure.

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1910 Subpart H - Hazardous Materials

1910.110, Storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gases.

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1910.111, Storage and handling of anhydrous ammonia.

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1910.119, Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

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1910.120, Hazardous waste operations and emergency response.

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1910 Subpart I - Personal Protective Equipment

1910.132, General requirements.

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1910.133, Eye and face protection.

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1910.134, Respiratory protection.

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1910.135, Head protection.

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1910.136, Foot protection.

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1910.138, Hand Protection.

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1910.140, Personal fall protection systems.

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1910 Subpart J - General Environmental Controls

1910.147, The control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout).

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1910 Subpart K - Medical and First Aid

1910.151, Medical services and first aid.

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1910 Subpart L - Fire Protection

1910.157, Portable fire extinguishers.

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1910 Subpart N - Materials Handling and Storage

1910.176, Handling materials - general.

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1910.178, Powered industrial trucks.

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1910.179, Overhead and gantry cranes.

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1910.184, Slings.

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1910 Subpart O - Machinery and Machine Guarding

1910.212, General requirements for all machines.

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1910.219, Mechanical power-transmission apparatus.

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1910 Subpart P - Hand and Portable Powered Tools and Other Hand-Held Equipment

1910.242, Hand and portable powered tools and equipment, general.

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1910 Subpart S - Electrical

1910.303, General.

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1910.305, Wiring methods, components, and equipment for general use.

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1910.334, Use of equipment.

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1910 Subpart Z - Toxic and Hazardous Substances

1910.1200, Hazard Communication.

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Frequently Cited OSHA Standards

Use OSHA’s Frequently-Cited OSHA Standards search tool for the latest information on OSHA citations within the Warehousing and Storage industry group (NAICS code 4931) or any of its four subsectors: NAICS code 493110 (General Warehousing and Storage), 493120 (Refrigerated Warehousing and Storage), 493130 (Farm Product Warehousing and Storage), and 493190 (Other Warehousing and Storage).

General Duty Clause Citations

OSHA’s General Duty Standard search tool enables users to search general duty 5(a)(1) citations issued during OSHA inspections since 2011. For Warehousing and Storage overall, search by NAICS code 4931, or search by any of its four subsectors: NAICS code 493110 (General Warehousing and Storage), 493120 (Refrigerated Warehousing and Storage), 493130 (Farm Product Warehousing and Storage), and 493190 (Other Warehousing and Storage).

State Standards

There are 28 OSHA-approved State Plans, operating state-wide occupational safety and health programs. State Plans are required to have standards and enforcement programs that are at least as effective as OSHA's and may have different or more stringent requirements.

Emphasis Programs

Local Emphasis Programs (LEPs) address hazards or industries that pose a particular risk to workers under the jurisdiction of an OSHA regional and/or area office. Emphasis programs may be implemented by a single area office, or at the regional level (Regional Emphasis Programs, REPs), and applied to all of the area offices within the region. The following REPs target establishments in the warehousing and storage industry sector:

In addition, the following LEPs and REPs address operations where Powered Industrial Trucks are used:

National Consensus Standards

Note: These are NOT OSHA regulations and compliance with them does not imply compliance with applicable OSHA standards. However, they do provide guidance from their originating organizations related to worker protection.

  • ANSI/ASC A14.3 Standard for Ladders – Fixed – Safety Requirements
  • ANSI/ASC A14.2 Standard for Ladders – Portable Metal – Safety Requirements
  • ANSI/ASC A14.7 Standard for Mobile Ladder Stands and Mobile Ladder Stand Platforms
  • ANSI/ASME Safety Standard for Conveyors and Related Equipment
  • ANSI/ASSP A1264.1 Safety Requirements for Workplace Walking/Working Surfaces and Their Access; Workplace, Floor, Wall and Roof Openings; Stairs and Guardrail/Handrail Systems
  • ANSI/ASSP Z244.1 The Control of Hazardous Energy – Lockout, Tagout and Alternative Methods
  • ANSI/ASSP Z359 Fall Protection and Fall Restraint
  • ANSI/IIAR Bulletin 109 Guidelines for: IIAR Minimum Safety Criteria for a Safe Ammonia Refrigeration System
  • ANSI/ISEA Z358.1 Emergency Eyewash and Shower Equipment Standard.
  • ANSI/ITSDF B56 standards for powered and non-powered industrial trucks.
  • ANSI MH16.1 Specification for the Design, Testing, and Utilization of Industrial Steel Storage Racks
  • ANSI MH29.1 Safety Requirements for Industrial Scissors Lifts
  • ANSI MH32.1 Stairs, Ladders, and Open-Edge Guards for Use with Material Handling Structures
  • ANSI/RIA R15.06 Industrial Robots and Robot Systems - Safety Requirements
  • ANSI/RIA R15.08 Industrial Mobile Robots – Safety Requirements – Part 1: Requirements for the Industrial Mobile Robot
  • ANSI/SIA A92.6 Standard for Self-Propelled Elevating Work Platforms
  • ICC International Building Code
  • IIAR Bulletin R1: A Guide to Good Practices for the Operation of an Ammonia Refrigeration System
  • NFPA 101: Life Safety Code