Evaluating Exposure

Preparing brownfields for productive reuse requires the integration of many elements—financial issues, community involvement, liability considerations, environmental assessment and cleanup, regulatory requirements, and more—as well as coordination among many groups of stakeholders. The assessment and cleanup of a site must be carried out in a way that integrates all those factors into the overall redevelopment process. The following links provide information about evaluating exposure to hazards at a brownfields site.

  • Small Business Safety and Health Handbook. OSHA Publication 2209, (2024) [Español OSHA Publication 4261, (2024)]. Summarizes the benefits of an effective safety and health program, provides self-inspection checklists for employers to identify workplace hazards, and reviews key workplace safety and health resources for small businesses.
  • Construction Industry Outreach Training Program. OSHA.
  • Brownfields Health and Safety: For Sites Evaluated and Remediated under Federal Brownfields Initiatives or State Voluntary Clean-up Programs. OSHA Question and Answer Sheet. Provides compliance information about site assessment and clean-up activities on brownfields.
  • Safety and Health Aspects of EM CX Remediation Technologies. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Publication No. EM 1110-1-4007, (August 15, 2003). This engineering manual contains detailed hazard analyses for 25 commonly used EM CX site remediation technologies and is written for USACE project designers, Architect-Engineers (A-Es) and safety and health professionals. The document serves as a resource in identifying potential hazards unique and/or significant to the technologies addressed along with recommended controls.

OSHA provides several guidance resources for evaluating employee exposure to site chemicals.


Biological hazards like bloodborne pathogens (HIV, Hepatitis B and C) and vector borne diseases (Lyme, West Nile Virus, Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Rabies) may be easily overlooked but are often associated with site work.

  • Bloodborne Pathogens and Needlestick Prevention. OSHA Safety and Health Topics Page. Provides links to useful exposure control resources if employees are required to provide first aid or CPR on-site.
  • Lyme Disease Facts. OSHA Fact Sheet, (2000).
  • Workplace Safety and Health Topics. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). A-Z index of all CDC topics.
  • Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Disease, transmission and exposure control information for mosquito, ticks and flea borne illnesses.
  • Hazards. Electronic Library of Construction Occupational Safety and Health (elcosh). Provides resources for evaluating and controlling common biological hazards during construction.