Dermal Exposure


Skin exposure to chemicals in the workplace is a significant problem in the U.S. Both the number of cases and the rate of skin disease in the U.S. exceeds recordable respiratory illnesses. In 2018*, 25,000 recordable skin diseases were reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) at a rate of 2.2 injuries per 10,000 employees, compared to 19,600 respiratory illnesses with a rate of 1.7 illnesses per 10,000 employees.

Most chemicals are readily absorbed through the skin and can cause other health effects and/or contribute to the dose absorbed by inhalation of the chemical from the air. Many studies indicate that absorption of chemicals through the skin can occur without being noticed by the worker. In many cases, skin is a more significant route of exposure than the lung. This is particularly true for non-volatile chemicals which are relatively toxic and which remain on work surfaces for long periods of time. The number of occupational illnesses caused by skin absorption of chemicals is not known. However, it is argued that an estimated 60,000 deaths and 860,000 occupational illnesses per year in the U.S. attributed to occupational exposure, a relatively small percentage caused by skin exposure would represent a significant health risk. (1)


Dermal exposures are addressed in specific OSHA standards for general industry, maritime, construction, and identification, classification, and regulation of carcinogens.

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Hazard Recognition

Provides references that may aid in creating a greater awareness of possible hazards.

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Evaluating Exposure

Provides information on how to estimate and evaluate dermal exposure.

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Control and Prevention

Provides information and references on how to control and prevent dermal exposure.

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Provides references to supporting information related to dermal exposure.

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Additional Resources

Provides links and references to additional resources related to dermal exposure.

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* Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) - Supplemental News Release Tables: SNR07. Illness cases by category of illness - rates, counts, and percent - industry division - 2018.