Dermal Exposure


  1. Boeniger MF. The significance of skin exposure. Annotated Occupational Hygiene. Nov 2003;47(8):591-3.
  2. TLV Committee: Threshold Limit Values for chemical substances and physical agents. In: Biological exposure indices. Cincinnati (OH): American Committee of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH); 1996.
  3. Ness SA. Surface and dermal monitoring for toxic exposures. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold; 1994.
  4. Durham WF, Wolfe HR. Measurement of the exposure of workers to pesticides. World Health Organization Bulletin. 1962;26:75-91.
  5. Spear RC, Popendorf WJ, et al. Fieldworkers' response to weathered residues of parathion. Journal of Occupational Medicine. Jun 1977;19:406-15.
  6. Popendorf WJ, Leffingwell JT. Regulating OP pesticide residues for farmworker protection. Residue Reviews. 1982;82:125-201.
  7. Lavy TL, Mattice JD. Progress in pesticide exposure studies and future concerns. Tox. Letters. Oct 1986;33(13):61-71.
  8. Fenske RA. Validation of environmental monitoring by biological monitoring: fluorescent tracer technique and patch technique. In: Biological monitoring for pesticide exposure: measurement, estimation, and risk reduction. Wang RG, et al, editors. Washington (DC): American Chemical Society; 1989.
  9. Popendorf WJ. Mechanisms of clothing exposure and dermal dosing during spray application. Second International Symposium on the Performance of Protective Clothing. Philadelphia (PA): ASTM Publications; 1989.
  10. Cowell JE, Lottman CM, et al. Assessment of lawn care worker exposure to dithiopyr. Arch. Envir. Contam. Tox. Aug 1991;21(2):195-201.
  11. McArthur B. Dermal measurement and wipe sampling methods: a review. Applied Occupational Environmental Hygiene. 1992;7(9):599-606.
  12. Chester G. Evaluation of agricultural worker exposure to, and absorption of, pesticides. Ann. Occup. Hygiene. 1993;37(5):509-23.
  13. Fenske RA. Dermal exposure assessment techniques. Ann. Occup. Hygiene. 1993;37(6):687-706.
  14. McCurdy SA, et al. Assessment of azinphosmethyl exposure in California peach harvest workers. Arch. Environ. Health. Jul-Aug 1994;49(4):289-96.
  15. Archibald BA, Solomon KR, et al. Estimation of pesticide exposure to greenhouse applicators using video imaging and other assessment techniques. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Mar 1995;56(3):226-35.
  16. Popendorf W, Selim M, et al. Exposure while applying industrial antimicrobial pesticides. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 1995;56(10):993-1001.
  17. Popendorf W, Selim M. Exposures while applying disinfectant pesticides. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Nov 1995;56(11):1111-20.
  18. Caplan KJ. The significance of wipe samples. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 1993;54(2):70-5.
  19. Klingner TD, McCorkle T. The application and significance of wipe samples. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 1994;55(3):251-4.
  20. OSHA Technical Manual (OTM). OSHA Directive TED 01-00-015 [TED 1-0.15A], (February 11, 2014).
  21. Popendorf W. Vapor pressure and solvent vapor hazards. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Oct 1984; 45(10):719-26.
  22. Purser DA. Combustion toxicology of anticholinesterases. In: Clinical and experimental toxicology of organophosphates and carbamates. Ballantyne B, Marrs TC, editors. Oxford (England): Butterworth-Heinemann, Ltd; 1992.
  23. Bronaugh R, Maibach HI. Percutaneous absorption. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1989.
  24. Guy RH, Hadgraft J. Principles of skin permeability relevant to chemical exposure. In: Dermal and ocular toxicology: fundamentals and methods. Hobson DW, editor. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 1991.
  25. Guy RH, Potts RO. Penetration of industrial chemicals across the skin: a predictive model. Am. J. Indr. Med. May 1993;23(5):711-9.
  26. Auton TR, et al. A physiologically based mathematical model of dermal absorption in man. Human Exper. Toxicol. Jan 1994;13(1):51-60.
  27. Bernard A, Lauwerys R. Biological monitoring of exposure to industrial chemicals. Occupational Health Practice. 3rd ed. Waldron HA, editor. London: Butterworths; 1989.
  28. Boehlecke BA, Bernstein RS. Recognition and evaluation of occupational and environmental health problems. Environmental and occupational medicine. 2nd ed. Rom WN, editor. Boston (MA): Little, Brown and Company; 1992.
  29. Cohen BS, Popendorf W. A method for monitoring dermal exposure to volatile chemicals. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Apr 1989;50(4):216-23.
  30. Ferron GA, Soderhold SC. Estimation of the times for evaporation of pure water droplets and for stabilization of salt solution particles. J. Aerosol Sci. 1990;21(3):415-29.
  31. Mellström GA, Wahlberg JE, et al. Protective gloves for occupational use. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 1994.