Gas Fired Lead Pot Canopy Hood
Oxide Drum Filling Local Exhaust Ventilation
Oxide Barrel Filling Local Exhaust Ventilation
Toxic Material Belt Conveying Head Pulley
Conveyor Belt Ventilation
Screw Conveyor Components
Drag Link Conveyor Configurations (Part 1)
Drag Link Conveyor Configurations (Part 2)
Paste Mixing Testing Station
Ventilated Tamping Stand
Lead Pot and Dross Hood
Scrap Pot and Dross Hood
Scrap Handling Barrel/Drum Exhaust Hood
Pasting Station with Combined Supplied Air Island (SAI) and Exhaust
Integrated Controls Plate Take-Off Operation
Detail A Integrated Controls Plate Take-Off Hood
Detail B Integrated Controls Plate Take-Off Lug Breaking Hood
Detail C Integrated Controls Plate Take-Off Rotary Stacking Table with Conveyor
Detail D Integrated Controls Plate Take-Off Supplied Air Island
Plate Parting Transition Hood Between Flash Drier and Take Off
Plate Storage Rack Hood
Pasting Take-Off Work Station Hood
Parting Station Band Saw Ventilation
Surface Grinder with Captor Hood
Plate Wrapping Station (Industrial)
Stacking Table Single Exhaust Booth Hood
Slant Stacking Station (Industrial)
Cast on Strap Machine (Farmer) Total Enclosure with Exhaust
Cast on Strap Machine (Dynacast II) Emission Controls
Group Drop Tamping/Burner Hood
Stack and Burn Bench Hood
Tiegel Machine Enclosure Assembly
Tiegel Anchor Sinking Station
Post Tacking Portable Hood (HVLV)
Dry Type Dust Collectors Dust Disposal
Dry Type Dust Collectors Discharge Valves (Part 1)
Dry Type Dust Collectors Discharge Valves (Part 2)
Flexible Exhaust Connections
Typical System Layout Low Volume/High Velocity
Hood for Cup Type Surface Grinder and Wire Brushes
Supplied Air Island
Central Vacuum System
Plan View of Central Vacuum System
Elevation View of Central Vacuum System
Schematic View of Central Vacuum System
Boot Wash Station
Shoe Cleaning Machine
Clothes Cleaning Air Shower
Paste Mixer with Supplied Air Island above Testing Station
Intercell Burning Backdraft Hood
Lead: Battery Manufacturing eTool
Plate Processing » Enveloping and Wrapping
Enveloping involves placing a plate (usually positive), either automatically or manually, within porous membranes. The major sources of exposure in this process result from lead oxide being released when the plates are handled incorrectly, such as resting them against the body or handling them in unventilated areas.
Potential Sources of Exposure
Lead oxide may become airborne due to workers improperly handling plates at the feed and discharge ends of enveloping machines as well as from the bellows effect when handling unsealed envelopes.
Exposure to lead may occur when the lead oxide that has accumulated on equipment, racks, and floors becomes airborne.
Lead dust may become airborne when workers improperly handle scrap plates.
Lead may contaminate clothing when a worker leans against contaminated equipment.
Increased exposure to lead oxide may occur when tamping plates in unventilated areas, such as the rack, creates puffs of lead dust.
Possible Engineering Controls
Use local exhaust ventilation, such as a grating or a perforated plate tamping stand that is equipped with downdraft and side-draft ventilation (Figure 4).
Enclose and ventilate equipment.
- Use a ventilated scrap barrel.
Provide a vacuum drop at the workstation.
Use a rotating base for placing pallets of plates so employees do not have to reach across.
Use a laminar flow (supplied-air) island over operators workstation.
Possible Work Practice Controls
- Tamp plates carefully over ventilated work station.
Do not bang plates excessively while tamping.
Keep open ends of envelopes away from the face.
Handle groups of plates with hands only rather than leaning them against the stomach.
Wear an apron (Figure 2).
Place, do not throw, defective plates into a scrap barrel.
Cover drums with a plastic bag before removing them from the area.
Seal all doors, windows, and other openings on the enveloping machine.
Perform plate parting using local exhaust ventilation (downdraft or side-draft), and not while the plates are moved from the pallets to the enveloping equipment.
Do not store plates on ventilated tamping stands.
Provide adequate PPE, a change of clothes, and shower rooms (see OSHA Lead Requirements for PPE, Housekeeping, and Hygiene Facilities).
Ensure that local exhaust ventilation is working properly.
Prevent cross drafts.
Use plastic bags in catch receptacles to facilitate removal without dust generation.
Vacuum the separator boards, workstation, and adjacent areas.
Use dust suppression techniques, such as keeping the floor wet, using dust suppression compounds, or vacuuming.
Ensure plate trays are vacuumed clean.
With video exposure monitoring (VEM), worker exposures to lead are monitored and recorded with a direct reading instrument. At the same time, workplace activities are recorded on a videotape. The left hand bar indicates changes in total dust concentrations over time.
As the employee removes plates from the pasting machine and brushes the edges of the plates, the red bar indicates increasing employee exposure to lead dust.
Note: This example illustrates how VEM can be used for determining sources of employee exposure. Other sources of employee lead exposure can be determined by using VEM sampling for a full work shift.