Gas Fired Lead Pot Canopy Hood
Oxide Drum Filling Local Exhaust Ventilation
Oxide Barrel Filling Local Exhaust Ventilation
Toxic Material Belt Conveying Head Pulley
Conveyor Belt Ventilation
Screw Conveyor Components
Drag Link Conveyor Configurations (Part 1)
Drag Link Conveyor Configurations (Part 2)
Paste Mixing Testing Station
Ventilated Tamping Stand
Lead Pot and Dross Hood
Scrap Pot and Dross Hood
Scrap Handling Barrel/Drum Exhaust Hood
Pasting Station with Combined Supplied Air Island (SAI) and Exhaust
Integrated Controls Plate Take-Off Operation
Detail A Integrated Controls Plate Take-Off Hood
Detail B Integrated Controls Plate Take-Off Lug Breaking Hood
Detail C Integrated Controls Plate Take-Off Rotary Stacking Table with Conveyor
Detail D Integrated Controls Plate Take-Off Supplied Air Island
Plate Parting Transition Hood Between Flash Drier and Take Off
Plate Storage Rack Hood
Pasting Take-Off Work Station Hood
Parting Station Band Saw Ventilation
Surface Grinder with Captor Hood
Plate Wrapping Station (Industrial)
Stacking Table Single Exhaust Booth Hood
Slant Stacking Station (Industrial)
Cast on Strap Machine (Farmer) Total Enclosure with Exhaust
Cast on Strap Machine (Dynacast II) Emission Controls
Group Drop Tamping/Burner Hood
Stack and Burn Bench Hood
Tiegel Machine Enclosure Assembly
Tiegel Anchor Sinking Station
Post Tacking Portable Hood (HVLV)
Dry Type Dust Collectors Dust Disposal
Dry Type Dust Collectors Discharge Valves (Part 1)
Dry Type Dust Collectors Discharge Valves (Part 2)
Flexible Exhaust Connections
Typical System Layout Low Volume/High Velocity
Hood for Cup Type Surface Grinder and Wire Brushes
Supplied Air Island
Central Vacuum System
Plan View of Central Vacuum System
Elevation View of Central Vacuum System
Schematic View of Central Vacuum System
Boot Wash Station
Shoe Cleaning Machine
Clothes Cleaning Air Shower
Paste Mixer with Supplied Air Island above Testing Station
Intercell Burning Backdraft Hood
Lead: Battery Manufacturing eTool
Battery Assembly » Stacking
After curing, the plates are stacked either by hand or by machine so that positive and negative plates alternate with an insulating separator in between. The major source of lead exposure in the stacking process is from oxide from the plates which can become easily airborne.
Potential Sources of Exposure
Exposure to lead dust may occur from improperly handling plates in unsealed envelopes.
Tamping plates in unventilated areas, such as the rack, creates a puff of dust.
Lead oxide that accumulates on equipment, racks, and floors may become airborne.
Clearing stacking equipment jam-ups.
Exposure to lead may increase when scrap plates are handled improperly, such as throwing in unventilated pail.
Leaning against equipment may increase clothing contamination.
Exposure to lead may increase from emptying clean-out trays improperly, by dumping in unventilated area.
Lead dust may escape from the stacking machine if the hinged panels are not closed.
Possible Engineering Controls
Use downdraft or slot ventilation at workstations.
- Provide a grating or a perforated plate tamping stand.
Use a ventilated scrap barrel (Figure 1).
- Use a central vacuum drop.
Consider adding duct cleanout openings so that large particles will drop out and not plug the lines.
- Provide exhaust ventilated storage rack.
Place pallets of plates on a rotating base.
- Use local exhaust ventilation with machines that use shuttles for moving plates.
These machines may have higher airborne levels due to abrasion of the plates.
Use a laminar flow (supplied-air) island over operators workstation.
Provide a plastic or glass, see-through plate between the stackers breathing zone and the plates. Enclose the process, if possible, to minimize the ventilation requirements.
Provide rubber mats or grated walking surfaces.
Possible Work Practice Controls
Tamp, break, or separate plates only in ventilated work areas.
Handle groups of plates with the hands only rather than leaning them against the stomach, chest, or chin.
Wear an apron (Figure 2).
Maximize the distance between the operators breathing and the plates by not stacking assembled groups more than three high.
- Place, do not throw, defective plates into scrap barrel.
Cover drums with a plastic bag before removing them from the area.
Keep access doors to ventilated enclosures close, except when access in needed.
Provide adequate PPE, a change of clothes, and shower rooms (see OSHA Lead Requirements for PPE, Housekeeping, and Hygiene Facilities).
Ensure that local exhaust ventilation is working properly.
Prevent cross drafts.
Vacuum work station and adjacent areas to prevent accumulation of oxide dust.
Vacuum off each row of plates before using.
Use dust suppression techniques, such as keeping floors wet, using dust suppression compounds, or vacuuming.
Vacuum clean-out trays (Figure 3) or dump in ventilated areas; do not dump them into unventilated barrels.