Gas Fired Lead Pot Canopy Hood
Oxide Drum Filling Local Exhaust Ventilation
Oxide Barrel Filling Local Exhaust Ventilation
Toxic Material Belt Conveying Head Pulley
Conveyor Belt Ventilation
Screw Conveyor Components
Drag Link Conveyor Configurations (Part 1)
Drag Link Conveyor Configurations (Part 2)
Paste Mixing Testing Station
Ventilated Tamping Stand
Lead Pot and Dross Hood
Scrap Pot and Dross Hood
Scrap Handling Barrel/Drum Exhaust Hood
Pasting Station with Combined Supplied Air Island (SAI) and Exhaust
Integrated Controls Plate Take-Off Operation
Detail A Integrated Controls Plate Take-Off Hood
Detail B Integrated Controls Plate Take-Off Lug Breaking Hood
Detail C Integrated Controls Plate Take-Off Rotary Stacking Table with Conveyor
Detail D Integrated Controls Plate Take-Off Supplied Air Island
Plate Parting Transition Hood Between Flash Drier and Take Off
Plate Storage Rack Hood
Pasting Take-Off Work Station Hood
Parting Station Band Saw Ventilation
Surface Grinder with Captor Hood
Plate Wrapping Station (Industrial)
Stacking Table Single Exhaust Booth Hood
Slant Stacking Station (Industrial)
Cast on Strap Machine (Farmer) Total Enclosure with Exhaust
Cast on Strap Machine (Dynacast II) Emission Controls
Group Drop Tamping/Burner Hood
Stack and Burn Bench Hood
Tiegel Machine Enclosure Assembly
Tiegel Anchor Sinking Station
Post Tacking Portable Hood (HVLV)
Dry Type Dust Collectors Dust Disposal
Dry Type Dust Collectors Discharge Valves (Part 1)
Dry Type Dust Collectors Discharge Valves (Part 2)
Flexible Exhaust Connections
Typical System Layout Low Volume/High Velocity
Hood for Cup Type Surface Grinder and Wire Brushes
Supplied Air Island
Central Vacuum System
Plan View of Central Vacuum System
Elevation View of Central Vacuum System
Schematic View of Central Vacuum System
Boot Wash Station
Shoe Cleaning Machine
Clothes Cleaning Air Shower
Paste Mixer with Supplied Air Island above Testing Station
Intercell Burning Backdraft Hood
Lead: Battery Manufacturing eTool
Oxide and Grid Processing » Oxide Production
Lead oxide, which is used to create the paste used on the battery plates, is either produced by the Ball Mill Process or the Barton-Like Process. It may also be purchased from an oxide producer (see receiving).
Potential Sources of Exposure
Lead dust can become airborne due to improper air flow or exhaust ventilation, which results in "puffing" of lead oxide at the mill inlet.
Exposure may occur from handling lead pigs while loading the mill pots or the ball mill.
Lead oxide dust may spill or leak from trunnion seals, bearing seals, conveying systems, and transfer points.
Exposure to lead may occur when drossing the lead pots during the Barton process (Figure 1) and during maintenance operations that require entry into the pot for cleanout.
Lead oxide may leak or spill during drive fitting and transfer operations.
Lead exposure may occur while collecting and testing oxide samples.
Operators may be exposed to lead oxide while cleaning the oxide production line.
Exposure may be due to vehicular traffic in adjacent roadways stirring up oxide.
Possible Engineering Controls
- Use local exhaust ventilation:
- Install a hood enclosure for the lead melting pot.
Install a hood enclosure on the dross pot or barrel.
Install tightly enclosed conveyer systems with ventilation at transfer stations (Figures 3 and 4).
Use exhaust ventilation at the sampling and process test stations (Figure 5).
Use exhaust ventilation around the agitator shaft or air intake of the Barton pot.
Place a hooded duct in close proximity to the air intake to contain the volume of a "puff" in order to prevent it from entering the workplace.
Place local exhaust ventilation around dust generation points.
- Ensure that drum filling operations are ventilated and enclosed.
Add a pressure relief valve, vented through a filtering system, to the screw conveyer to vent dust generated during the transfer operation.
- Isolate the process:
Separate the operation from the rest of the plant and keep it under negative pressure.
Build a positive pressure control room for the operator.
Use pneumatic conveyers for handling barrels rather than handling them manually.
Use automatic sampling instead of manual sampling.
Install a vertical classifier ahead of the normal classifier and oxide collection equipment to reduce "puffing" of the Barton Process equipment.
Protect or insulate storage tanks from the weather to prevent water condensation on the inside walls.
Mechanize the system of feeding lead pots or mills.
Possible Work Practice Controls
Notify supervisor of oxide leaks and perform temporary repairs immediately.
Fill drums inside ventilated hoods or enclosures.
Wipe down the exterior of drums before transferring them to storage or to other areas.
Cap the drums before vacuuming.
Prevent lead buildup on the inside perimeter of the pot because it can slough off and cause puffing.
Provide adequate PPE, a change of clothes, and shower rooms (see OSHA Lead Requirements for PPE, Housekeeping, and Hygiene Facilities).
Ensure that the local exhaust ventilation is working properly (Figure 2).
- Develop a written schedule of inspections for oxide mill operators.
The schedule should include weekly inspections of equipment such as overhead ducts and rotary valves.
Vacuum all oxide spills immediately with a central vacuum system or a HEPA vacuum.
Vacuum equipment surfaces and floors whenever possible during each shift (Figure 6).
Use dust suppression compounds in place of water for dust suppression in the mill area to prevent the possibility of oxide fires and the mixing of water and molten lead.
Periodically shut down the plant to perform a thorough cleanup of settled dust.