Ammonia Refrigeration » Additional References

This eTool includes resources from the following organizations:

Note: Standards are constantly being updated and revised. Refer to the latest version of the standard.

The ACC represents the leading companies engaged in the business of chemistry. Council members apply the science of chemistry to make innovative products and services that make people's lives better, healthier, and safer.

ANSI is a private, non-profit organization that administers and coordinates the U.S. voluntary standardization and conformity assessment system.

  • Mechanical Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Installations Aboard Ship. ANSI/ASHRAE 26-1996, (1996). Provides the minimum general requirements for the design, construction, installation, operation, inspection, and maintenance of mechanical refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment aboard shipsto permit the safe, efficient, and reliable operation of such systems. See the Table of Contents.

ASME International is a nonprofit educational and technical organization that conducts one of the world's largest technical publishing operations, and sets many industrial and manufacturing standards.

  • B31.5-2001 Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components. (2001). Prescribes requirements for the materials, design, fabrication, assembly, erection, test, and inspection of refrigerant, heat transfer components, and secondary coolant piping.
  • ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (2001). Provides requirements applicable to the design, fabrication, inspection, testing, and certification of pressure vessels operating at either internal or external pressures exceeding 15 psig. Contains mandatory and non-mandatory appendices detailing supplementary design criteria, nondestructive examination and inspection acceptance standards.

IIAR is an international association serving those who use ammonia refrigeration technology. IIAR is recognized throughout industry and government around the world as the authoritative source of information about ammonia refrigeration.

  • IIAR Process Safety Management Guidelines for Ammonia Refrigeration. (1998). Provides and overview of OSHA's Process Safety Management (PSM) Standard. See the Table of Contents.
  • IIAR Ammonia Refrigeration Piping Handbook. Provides is a tutorial and reference book that represents the collective efforts of the most knowledgeable specialists in the ammonia refrigeration industry. See the Table of Contents.
  • IIAR Ammonia Data Book. Features resource data essential for the safe and efficient operation of any ammonia refrigeration facility. Contains a revised chapter on US regulatory requirements for ammonia and other valuable compliance information about federal regulations, such as the Community Right to Know Act. See the Table of Contents.
  • Oil Draining Guidelines. (1996). Describes procedures for safely draining oil from equipment.
  • IIAR Ammonia Refrigeration Library. The IIAR Ammonia Refrigeration Library is a complete set of IIAR Standards and Bulletins.
    • American National Standard for Equipment, Design & Installation of Ammonia Mechanical Refrigerating Systems. (1999). Applies to closed circuit mechanical refrigerating systems using ammonia as a refrigerant. Contains information to specify equipment and machinery room design and installation for ammonia mechanical refrigerating systems. See the Table of Contents.
    • Bulletin #R1. A Guide to Good Practices for the Operation of an Ammonia Refrigeration System. (1983). A reference document providing users of ammonia refrigeration with suggested practices for the operation of an ammonia refrigeration system. See the Table of Contents.
    • Bulletin No. 107. Guidelines for: Suggested Safety and Operating Procedures When Making Ammonia Refrigeration Plant Tie-Ins. (1997, February). Addresses the need to approach ammonia refrigeration system tie-ins in a safe and methodical manner. Provides owners and contractors with a general checklist of safety and logistical items that should be reviewed when planning system shutdowns and tie-ins. Also provides engineers with ideas on how and where to design for future connections and taps that can make future tie-ins easier and safer. See the Table of Contents.
    • Bulletin No. 108. Guidelines for Water Contamination in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems. (1986). Offers insights on where the water can come from and how to minimize continued infiltration. Provides an analytical approach to quantifying water concentrations, and recommends apparatus to remove the water. See the Table of Contents.
    • Bulletin No. 109. Guidelines for IIAR Minimum Safety Criteria for a Safe Ammonia Refrigeration System. (1997, October). Embraces an IIAR goal of ensuring that ammonia refrigeration systems are engineered, constructed and operated in a safe manner. Provides detailed lists of items to consider when designing, inspecting, or operating a system. Housekeeping, recordkeeping, code considerations and personnel safety equipment are some of the safety issues addressed. Also provides inspection checklist forms for compressors, condensers, evaporators, vessels and heat exchangers to check system installation against recognized industry safety requirements. See the Table of Contents.
    • Bulletin No. 110. Guidelines for Start-Up, Inspection, and Maintenance of Ammonia Mechanical Refrigerating Systems. (1993, March). Covers ammonia characteristics and hazards, inspection and maintenance of equipment, start-up issues, reference standards, safety equipment, and log book record-keeping. See the Table of Contents.
    • Bulletin No. 111. Guidelines for Ammonia Machinery Room Ventilation. (1991, October). Major differences can be found between codes when determining ventilation requirements for ammonia machinery rooms. This bulletin cuts through the jargon and provides a practical ventilation design criteria that will satisfy existing code requirements and improve machinery room safety. See the Table of Contents.
    • Bulletin No. 112. Guidelines for Ammonia Machinery Room Design. (1998, June). Summarizes generally accepted industry practice for ammonia machinery rooms, and references relevant codes and standards where instructive. The recommendations in this guideline are most applicable to completely new ammonia machinery rooms. See the Table of Contents.
    • Bulletin No. 114. Guidelines for Identification of Ammonia Refrigeration Piping and System Components. (1991, September). Provides a comprehensive ammonia labeling scheme for companies in need of an identification system that "covers it all." Offers recommendations on label sizes, colors, installation locations and label material requirements. See the Table of Contents.
    • Bulletin No. 116. Guidelines for Avoiding Component Failure in Industrial Refrigeration Systems Caused by Abnormal Pressure or Shock. (1992, October). Identifies three significant factors that can lead to ammonia refrigeration system damage and personnel injury: trapped liquid, sudden liquid deceleration, and vapor propelled liquid. Also explains the most likely causes for each of these problems and provides design, operation and servicing tips that can minimize the chances of them occurring. Offers numerous suggestions on making hot gas defrost operations safer and more effective. See the Table of Contents.

The NB membership oversees adherence to codes involving the construction and repair of boilers and pressure vessels.

  • National Board Inspector Code 2001 Edition, NB-23. (2001). Provides rules and guidelines for in-service inspection of boilers, pressure vessels, piping and pressure relief valves. Also provides rules for the repair, alteration, and re-rating of pressure-retaining items and repair of pressure relief valves. See the Table of Contents.

NIOSH is the Federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related disease and injury. The Institute is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Note: The table of contents of these out of print NIOSH publications is currently available.

  • Working Safely with Anhydrous Ammonia. NIOSH Publication No. 79-120, (1979). Written for employees who work with anhydrous ammonia and briefly describes anhydrous ammonia's important physical properties, the effects of overexposure, first aid procedures, personal protective equipment useful to prevent exposure, and recommendations for working safely. See the Table of Contents.
  • A Guide for Developing a Training Program for Anhydrous Ammonia Workers. NIOSH Publication No. 79-119, (1978). Primarily emphasizes safety in the operation of facilities that handle anhydrous ammonia for agricultural purposes; however, the information included should interest all who handle anhydrous ammonia at other permanent installations. See the Table of Contents.

OSHA maintains Safety and Health Topic pages that reference information on applicable standards, hazard recognition, exposure evaluation, possible solutions, and other information pertinent to various topics. The following Safety and Health Topic pages provide useful information relevant to ammonia refrigeration.

RMA is the national trade association for the rubber products industry.

  • Specifications for Anhydrous Ammonia Hose, 7th Ed. Publication IP-14, (2003). Covers hose, three-inch inside diameter and smaller, commonly referred to as "pressure transfer hose", used to convey anhydrous ammonia liquid or to convey anhydrous ammonia gas where the gas is in contact with liquid ammonia.
  • Hose Technical Bulletin - Manual for Use, Maintenance, Testing, and Inspection of Anhydrous Ammonia Hose, 4th Ed. Publication IP-11-2, (1997).