Additional References » NIOSH Publication, No. 79-119, 1978

A Guide for Developing a Training Program for Anhydrous Ammonia Workers. NIOSH Publication No. 79-119, (1978). Primarily emphasizes safety in the operation of facilities that handle anhydrous ammonia for agricultural purposes; however, the information included should interest all who handle anhydrous ammonia at other permanent installations.


  • Introduction, 1
  • Employee Training, 4
  • Anhydrous Ammonia Physical Properties, 7
  • How Ammonia Affects the Body, 10
  • First Aid, 13
    • Contact with the Skin, 14
    • Contact with the Eyes, 14
    • Taken Internally, 15
    • Inhalation, 16
    • Summary, 17
  • Personal Protective and Safety Equipment, 18
  • Bulk Plants and Permanent Installations, 23
    • Storage Tanks, 25
    • Transportation of Anhydrous Ammonia, 28
    • Piping, Fittings, and Valves, 31
    • Hoses, 33
  • Transfer Operations, 36
  • Potential Accidents, 38
  • Further Information, 40
  • Appendix A - Transfer Operations, 42
  • Appendix B - Valves and Fittings, 73
  • Appendix C - Cylinders, 77
  • Appendix D - Ammonia Plant Safety Check List, 81


(Only the abstract is currently available for download from the NIOSH site.)

A guide for the establishment of a training program for employees who handle anhydrous-ammonia (7664417) is presented. Areas addressed in this training include the physical properties of anhydrous-ammonia, the effects of overexposure, first aid to counteract such exposure, and the proper use of personal protective and safety equipment. Safe procedures for the operation, maintenance, and repair of equipment also are described. Proper storage and handling of ammonia in bulk plants and permanent installations are examined, and transfer operations and transportation are discussed. Potential accidents involving anhydrous-ammonia are cited, and publications containing detailed information regarding the handling of the substance that may be helpful in establishing training and safety and health programs are listed. Details on the transfer of anhydrous-ammonia, as well as descriptions of valves, fittings, and cylinders related to its storage, are provided.