<< Back to Construction Outreach Program


Construction Safety and Health
Outreach Program
U.S. Department of Labor
OSHA Office of Training and Education
May 1996

OSHA Office of Training and Education - 1996

This informational discussion is intended to provide a generic, non-exhaustive overview of a particular standards-related topic. This discussion does not itself alter or determine compliance responsibilities, which are set forth in OSHA standards themselves, and in the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. Moreover, because interpretations and enforcement policy may change over time, for additional guidance on OSHA compliance requirements, the reader should consult current administrative interpretations and decisions by the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission and the courts.

INTRODUCTION

Many standards promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) explicitly require the employer to train employees in the safety and health aspects of their jobs. Other OSHA standards make it the employer's responsibility to limit certain job assignments to employees who are "certified," "competent," or "qualified"-meaning that they have had special previous training, in or out of the workplace. The term "designated" personnel means selected or assigned by the employer or the employer's representative as being qualified to perform specific duties. These requirements reflect OSHA's belief that training is an essential part of every employer's safety and health program for protecting workers from injuries and illnesses. Many researchers conclude that those who are new on the job have a higher rate of accidents and injuries than more experienced workers. If ignorance of specific job hazards and of proper work practices is even partly to blame for this higher injury rate, then training will help to provide a solution.

As an example of the trend in OSHA safety and health training requirements, the Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals Standard (Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations Part 1926.64) contains several training requirements. This standard was promulgated under the requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The Process Safety Management Standard requires the employer to evaluate or verify that employees comprehend the training given to them. This means that the training to be given must have established goals and objectives regarding what is to be accomplished. Subsequent to the training, an evaluation would be conducted to verify that the employees understood the subjects presented or acquired the desired skills. If the established goals and objectives of the training program were not achieved as expected, the employer then would revise the training program to make it more effective, or conduct more frequent refresher training or some combination of these. The requirements of the Process Safety Management Standard follow the concepts embodied in the OSHA training guidelines contained in this discussion.

The length and complexity of OSHA standards may make it difficult to find all the references to training. So, to help employers, safety and health professionals, training directors, and others with a need to know, OSHA's training-related requirements have been excerpted and collected in this discussion. Requirements for posting information, warning signs, labels, and the like are excluded, as are most references to the qualifications of people assigned to test workplace conditions or equipment.

It is usually a good idea for the employer to keep a record of all safety and health training. Records can provide evidence of the employer's good faith and compliance with OSHA standards. Documentation can also supply an answer to one of the first questions an accident investigator will ask: "Was the injured employee trained to do the job?"

Training in the proper performance of a job is time and money well spent, and the employer might regard it as an investment rather than an expense. An effective program of safety and health training for workers can result in fewer injuries and illnesses, better morale, and lower insurance premiums, among other benefits.

Voluntary Training Guidelines

INTRODUCTION

The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 does not address specifically the responsibility of employers to provide health and safety information and instruction to employees, although Section 5(a)(2) does require that each employer ". . . shall comply with occupational safety and health standards promulgated under this Act." However, more than 100 of the Act's current standards do contain training requirements.

Therefore, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration has developed voluntary training guidelines to assist employers in providing the safety and health information and instruction needed for their employees to work at minimal risk to themselves, to fellow employees, and to the public.

The guidelines are designed to help employers to: (1) determine whether a worksite problem can be solved by training; (2) determine what training, if any, is needed; (3) identify goals and objectives for the training; (4) design learning activities; (5) conduct training; (6) determine the effectiveness of the training; and (7) revise the training program based on feedback from employees, supervisors, and others.

The development of the guidelines is part of an agency-wide objective to encourage cooperative, voluntary safety and health activities among OSHA, the business community, and workers. These voluntary programs include training and education, consultation, voluntary protection programs, and abatement assistance.

Training Model

The guidelines provide employers with a model for designing, conducting, evaluating, and revising training programs. The training model can be used to develop training programs for a variety of occupational safety and health hazards identified at the workplace. Additionally, it can assist employers in their efforts to meet the training requirements in current or future occupational safety and health standards.

A training program designed in accordance with these guidelines can be used to supplement and enhance the employer's other education and training activities. The guidelines afford employers significant flexibility in the selection of content and training program design. OSHA encourages a personalized approach to the informational and instructional programs at individual worksite's, thereby enabling employers to provide the training that is most needed and applicable to local working conditions.

Assistance with training programs or the identification of resources for training is available through such organizations as OSHA full-service Area Offices, State agencies which have their own OSHA-approved occupational safety and health programs, OSHA-funded State on-site consultation programs for employers, local safety councils, the OSHA Office of Training and Education, and OSHA-funded New Directions grantees.

Review Commission Implications

OSHA does not intend to make the guidelines mandatory. And they should not be used by employers as a total or complete guide in training and education matters which can result in enforcement proceedings before the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. However, employee training programs are always an issue in Review Commission cases which involve alleged violations of training requirements contained in OSHA standards.

The adequacy of employee training may also become an issue in contested cases where the affirmative defense of unpreventable employee misconduct is raised. Under case law well-established in the Commission and the courts, an employer may successfully defend against an otherwise valid citation by demonstrating that all feasible steps were taken to avoid the occurrence of the hazard, and that actions of the employee involved in the violation were a departure from a uniformly and effectively enforced work rule of which the employee had either actual or constructive knowledge.

In either type of case, the adequacy of the training given to employees in connection with a specific hazard is a factual matter which can be decided only by considering all the facts and circumstances surrounding the alleged violation. The general guidelines in this publication are not intended, and cannot be used, as evidence of the appropriate level of training in litigation involving either the training requirements of OSHA standards or affirmative defenses based upon employer training programs.

TRAINING GUIDELINES

OSHA's training guidelines follow a model that consists of:

  • Determining if Training is Needed
  • Identifying Training Needs
  • Identifying Goals and Objectives
  • Developing Learning Activities
  • Conducting the Training
  • Evaluating Program Effectiveness
  • Improving the Program

The model is designed to be one that even the owner of a business with very few employees can use without having to hire a professional trainer or purchase expensive training materials. Using this model, employers or supervisors can develop and administer safety and health training programs that address problems specific to their own business, fulfill the learning needs of their own employees, and strengthen the overall safety and health program of the workplace.

Determining If Training is Needed

The first step in the training process is a basic one to determine whether a problem can be solved by training. Whenever employees are not performing their jobs properly, it is often assumed that training will bring them up to standard. However, it is possible that other actions (such as hazard abatement or the implementation of engineering controls) would enable employees to perform their jobs properly.

Ideally, safety and health training should be provided before problems or accidents occur. This training would cover both general safety and health rules and work procedures, and would be repeated if an accident or near-miss incident occurred.

Problems that can be addressed effectively by training include those that arise from lack of knowledge of a work process, unfamiliarity with equipment, or incorrect execution of a task. Training is less effective (but still can be used) for problems arising from an employee's lack of motivation or lack of attention to the job. Whatever its purpose, training is most effective when designed in relation to the goals of the employer's total safety and health program.

Identifying Training Needs

If the problem is one that can be solved, in whole or in part, by training, then the next step is to determine what training is needed. For this, it is necessary to identify what the employee is expected to do and in what ways, if any, the employee's performance is deficient. This information can be obtained by conducting a job analysis which pinpoints what an employee needs to know in order to perform a job.

When designing a new training program, or preparing to instruct an employee in an unfamiliar procedure or system, a job analysis can be developed by examining engineering data on new equipment or the safety data sheets on unfamiliar substances. The content of the specific Federal or State OSHA standards applicable to a business can also provide direction in developing training content. Another option is to conduct a Job Hazard Analysis. This is a procedure for studying and recording each step of a job, identifying existing or potential hazards, and determining the best way to perform the job in order to reduce or eliminate the risks. Information obtained from a Job Hazard Analysis can be used as the content for the training activity.

If an employer's learning needs can be met by revising an existing training program rather than developing a new one, or if the employer already has some knowledge of the process or system to be used, appropriate training content can be developed through such means as:

  1. Using company accident and injury records to identify how accidents occur and what can be done to prevent them from recurring.
  2. Requesting employees to provide, in writing and in their own words, descriptions of their jobs. These should include the tasks performed and the tools, materials and equipment used.
  3. Observing employees at the worksite as they perform tasks, asking about the work, and recording their answers.
  4. Examining similar training programs offered by other companies in the same industry, or obtaining suggestions from such organizations as the National Safety Council (which can provide information on Job Hazard Analysis), the Bureau of Labor Statistics, OSHA-approved State programs, OSHA full-service Area Offices, OSHA-funded State consultation programs, or the OSHA Office of Training and Education.

The employees themselves can provide valuable information on the training they need. Safety and health hazards can be identified through the employees' responses to such questions as whether anything about their jobs frightens them, if they have had any near-miss incidents, if they feel they are taking risks, or if they believe that their jobs involve hazardous operations or substances.

Once the kind of training that is needed has been determined, it is equally important to determine what kind of training is not needed. Employees should be made aware of all the steps involved in a task or procedure, but training should focus on those steps on which improved performance is needed. This avoids unnecessary training and tailors the training to meet the needs of the employees.

Identifying Goals and Objectives

Once the employees' training needs have been identified, employers can then prepare objectives for the training. Instructional objectives, if clearly stated, will tell employers what they want their employees to do, to do better, or to stop doing.

Learning objectives do not necessarily have to be written, but in order for the training to be as successful as possible, clear and measurable objectives should be thought-out before the training begins. For an objective to be effective it should identify as precisely as possible what the individuals will do to demonstrate that they have learned, or that the objective has been reached. They should also describe the important conditions under which the individual will demonstrate competence and define what constitutes acceptable performance.

Using specific, action-oriented language, the instructional objectives should describe the preferred practice or skill and its observable behavior. For example, rather than using the statement: "The employee will understand how to use a respirator" as an instructional objective, it would be better to say: "The employee will be able to describe how a respirator works and when it should be used." Objectives are most effective when worded in sufficient detail that other qualified persons can recognize when the desired behavior is exhibited.

Developing Learning Activities

Once employers have stated precisely what the objectives for the training program are, then learning activities can be identified and described. Learning activities enable employees to demonstrate that they have acquired the desired skills and knowledge. To ensure that employees transfer the skills or knowledge from the learning activity to the job, the learning situation should simulate the actual job as closely as possible. Thus, employers may want to arrange the objectives and activities in a sequence which corresponds to the order in which the tasks are to be performed on the job, if a specific process is to be learned. For instance, if an employee must learn the beginning processes of using a machine, the sequence might be: (1) to check that the power source is connected; (2) to ensure that the safety devices are in place and are operative; (3) to know when and how to throw the switch; and so on.

A few factors will help to determine the type of learning activity to be incorporated into the training. One aspect is the training resources available to the employer. Can a group training program that uses an outside trainer and film be organized, or should the employer personally train the employees on a one-to-one basis? Another factor is the kind of skills or knowledge to be learned. Is the learning oriented toward physical skills (such as the use of special tools) or toward mental processes and attitudes? Such factors will influence the type of learning activity designed by employers. The training activity can be group-oriented, with lectures, role play, and demonstrations; or designed for the individual as with self-paced instruction.

The determination of methods and materials for the learning activity can be as varied as the employer's imagination and available resources will allow. The employer may want to use charts, diagrams, manuals, slides, films, viewgraph's (overhead transparencies), videotapes, audiotapes, or simply blackboard and chalk, or any combination of these and other instructional aids. Whatever the method of instruction, the learning activities should be developed in such a way that the employees can clearly demonstrate that they have acquired the desired skills or knowledge.

Conducting the Training

With the completion of the steps outlined above, the employer is ready to begin conducting the training. To the extent possible, the training should be presented so that its organization and meaning are clear to the employees. To do so, employers or supervisors should: (1) provide overviews of the material to be learned; (2) relate, wherever possible, the new information or skills to the employee's goals, interests, or experience; and (3) reinforce what the employees learned by summarizing the program's objectives and the key points of information covered. These steps will assist employers in presenting the training in a clear, unambiguous manner.

In addition to organizing the content, employers must also develop the structure and format of the training. The content developed for the program, the nature of the workplace or other training site, and the resources available for training will help employers determine for themselves the frequency of training activities, the length of the sessions, the instructional techniques, and the individual(s)

best qualified to present the information.

In order to be motivated to pay attention and learn the material that the employer or supervisor is presenting, employees must be convinced of the importance and relevance of the material. Among the ways of developing motivation are: (1) explaining the goals and objectives of instruction; (2) relating the training to the interests, skills, and experiences of the employees; (3) outlining the main points to be presented during the training session(s); and (4) pointing out the benefits of training (e.g., the employee will be better informed, more skilled, and thus more valuable both on the job and on the labor market; or the employee will, if he or she applies the skills and knowledge learned, be able to work at reduced risk).

An effective training program allows employees to participate in the training process and to practice their skills or knowledge. This will help to ensure that they are learning the required knowledge or skills and permit correction if necessary. Employees can become involved in the training process by participating in discussions, asking questions, contributing their knowledge and expertise, learning through hands-on experiences, and through role-playing exercises.

Evaluating Program Effectiveness

To make sure that the training program is accomplishing its goals, an evaluation of the training can be valuable. Training should have, as one of its critical components, a method of measuring the effectiveness of the training. A plan for evaluating the training session(s), either written or thought-out by the employer, should be developed when the course objectives and content are developed. It should not be delayed until the training has been completed. Evaluation will help employers or supervisors determine the amount of learning achieved and whether an employee's performance has improved on the job. Among the methods of evaluating training are: (1) Student opinion. Questionnaires or informal discussions with employees can help employers determine the relevance and appropriateness of the training program; (2) Supervisors' observations. Supervisors are in good positions to observe an employee's performance both before and after the training and note improvements or changes; and (3) Workplace improvements. The ultimate success of a training program may be changes throughout the workplace that result in reduced injury or accident rates.

However it is conducted, an evaluation of training can give employers the information necessary to decide whether or not the employees achieved the desired results, and whether the training session should be offered again at some future date.

Improving the Program

If, after evaluation, it is clear that the training did not give the employees the level of knowledge and skill that was expected, then it may be necessary to revise the training program or provide periodic retraining. At this point, asking questions of employees and of those who conducted the training may be of some help. Among the questions that could be asked are: (1) Were parts of the content already known and, therefore, unnecessary? (2) What material was confusing or distracting? (3) Was anything missing from the program? (4) What did the employees learn, and what did they fail to learn?

It may be necessary to repeat steps in the training process, that is, to return to the first steps and retrace one's way through the training process. As the program is evaluated, the employer should ask: (1) If a job analysis was conducted, was it accurate? (2) Was any critical feature of the job overlooked? (3) Were the important gaps in knowledge and skill included? (4) Was material already known by the employees intentionally omitted? (5) Were the instructional objectives presented clearly and concretely? (6) Did the objectives state the level of acceptable performance that was expected of employees? (7) Did the learning activity simulate the actual job? (8) Was the learning activity appropriate for the kinds of knowledge and skills required on the job? (9) When the training was presented, was the organization of the material and its meaning made clear? (10) Were the employees motivated to learn? (11) Were the employees allowed to participate actively in the training process? (12) Was the employer's evaluation of the program thorough?

A critical examination of the steps in the training process will help employers to determine where course revision is necessary.

MATCHING TRAINING TO EMPLOYEES

While all employees are entitled to know as much as possible about the safety and health hazards to which they are exposed, and employers should attempt to provide all relevant information and instruction to all employees, the resources for such an effort frequently are not, or are not believed to be, available. Thus, employers are often faced with the problem of deciding who is in the greatest need of information and instruction.

One way to differentiate between employees who have priority needs for training and those who do not is to identify employee populations which are at higher levels of risk. The nature of the work will provide an indication that such groups should receive priority for information on occupational safety and health risks.

Identifying Employees at Risk

One method of identifying employee populations at high levels of occupational risk (and thus in greater need of safety and health training) is to pinpoint hazardous occupations. Even within industries which are hazardous in general, there are some employees who operate at greater risk than others. In other cases the hazardousness of an occupation is influenced by the conditions under which it is performed, such as noise, heat or cold, or safety or health hazards in the surrounding area. In these situations, employees should be trained not only on how to perform their job safely but also on how to operate within a hazardous environment.

A second method of identifying employee populations at high levels of risk is to examine the incidence of accidents and injuries, both within the company and within the industry. If employees in certain occupational categories are experiencing higher accident and injury rates than other employees, training may be one way to reduce that rate. In addition, thorough accident investigation can identify not only specific employees who could benefit from training but also identify company-wide training needs.

Research has identified the following variables as being related to a disproportionate share of injuries and illnesses at the worksite on the part of employees:

  1. The age of the employee (younger employees have higher incidence rates).
  2. The length of time on the job (new employees have higher incidence rates).
  3. The size of the firm (in general terms, medium-size firms have higher incidence rates than smaller or larger firms).
  4. The type of work performed (incidence and severity rates vary significantly by SIC Code).
  5. The use of hazardous substances (by SIC Code).

These variables should be considered when identifying employee groups for training in occupational safety and health. In summary, information is readily available to help employers identify which employees should receive safety and health information, education and training, and who should receive it before others. Employers can request assistance in obtaining information by contacting such organizations as OSHA Area Offices, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, OSHA-approved State programs, State onsite consultation programs, the OSHA Office of Training and Education, or local safety councils.

Training Employees at Risk

Determining the content of training for employee populations at higher levels of risk is similar to determining what any employee needs to know, but more emphasis is placed on the requirements of the job and the possibility of injury. One useful tool for determining training content from job requirements is the Job Hazard Analysis described earlier. This procedure examines each step of a job, identifies existing or potential hazards, and determines the best way to perform the job in order to reduce or eliminate the hazards. Its key elements are: (1) job description; (2) job location; (3) key steps (preferably in the order in which they are performed); (4) tools, machines and materials used; (5) actual and potential safety and health hazards associated with these key job steps; and (6) safe and healthful practices, apparel, and equipment required for each job step.

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) can also provide information for training employees in the safe use of materials. These data sheets, developed by chemical manufacturers and importers, are supplied with manufacturing or construction materials and describe the ingredients of a product, its hazards, protective equipment to be used, safe handling procedures, and emergency first-aid responses. The information contained in these sheets can help employers identify employees in need of training (i.e., workers handling substances described in the sheets) and train employees in safe use of the substances. Material Safety Data Sheets are generally available from suppliers, manufacturers of the substance, large employers who use the substance on a regular basis, or they can be developed by employers or trade associations. MSDS are particularly useful for those employers who are developing training on chemical use as required by OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard.

CONCLUSION

In an attempt to assist employers with their occupational health and safety training activities, OSHA has developed a set of training guidelines in the form of a model. This model is designed to help employers develop instructional programs as part of their total education and training effort. The model addresses the questions of who should be trained, on what topics, and for what purposes. It also helps employers determine how effective the program has been and enables them to identify employees who are in greatest need of education and training. The model is general enough to be used in any area of occupational safety and health training, and allows employers to determine for themselves the content and format of training. Use of this model in training activities is just one of many ways that employers can comply with the OSHA standards that relate to training and enhance the safety and health of their employees.


Construction Training Requirements

29 CFR Part 1926

Subpart C General Safety and Health Provisions
General Safety and Health Provisions
Safety Training and Education
Subpart D Occupational Health and Environmental Controls
Medical Services and First Aid
Ionizing Radiation
Nonionizing Radiation
Gases, Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists
Asbestos
Hazard Communication, Construction
Lead in Construction
Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals
Subpart E Personal Protective and Life-Saving Equipment
Hearing Protection
Respiratory Protection
Subpart F Fire Protection and Prevention  
Fire Protection
Subpart G Signs, Signals, and Barricades
Signaling
Subpart I Tools-Hand and Power
Powder-Operated Hand Tools
Woodworking Tools
Subpart J Welding and Cutting
Gas Welding and Cutting
Arc Welding and Cutting
Fire Prevention
Welding, Cutting, and Heating in Way of Preservative Coatings
Subpart K Electrical
Ground-Fault Protection
Subpart L Scaffolding
Scaffolding
Guarding of Low-Pitched Roof Perimeters During the Performance of Built-Up Roofing Work
Fall Protection
Subpart N Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Elevators, and Conveyors
Cranes and Derricks
Material Hoists, Personnel Hoists, and Elevators
Subpart O Motor Vehicles, Mechanized Equipment, and Marine Operations
Material Handling Equipment
Site Clearing
Subpart P Excavations
Excavations - General Protection Requirements (Excavations, Trenching, and Shoring)
Subpart Q Concrete and Masonry Construction
Concrete and Masonry Construction
Subpart R Steel Erection
Bolting, Riveting, Fitting-Up, and Plumbing-Up
Subpart S Underground Construction, Caissons, Cofferdams, and Compressed Air
Underground Construction
Compressed Air
Subpart T Demolition
Preparatory Operations
Chutes
Mechanical Demolition
Subpart U Blasting and Use of Explosives
General Provisions (Blasting and Use of Explosives)
Blaster Qualifications
Surface Transportation of Explosives
Firing the Blast
Subpart V Power Transmission and Distribution
General Requirements (Power Transmission and Distribution)
Overhead Lines
Underground Lines
Construction in Energized Substations
Ladders

Construction Training Requirements

The following training requirements have been excerpted from Title 29, Code of Federal Regulations Part 1926. Note that in addition to these requirements, Part 1910, relating to general industry, also contains applicable training standards.

General Safety and Health Provisions

1926.20(b)(2) and (4)

(2) Such programs [as may be necessary to comply with this part] shall provide for frequent and regular inspections of the job sites, materials, and equipment to be made by competent persons [capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who have authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them designated by the employers.]

(4) The employer shall permit only those employees qualified [one who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has successfully demonstrated his ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project] by training or experience to operate equipment and machinery.

Safety Training and Education

1926.21(a)

(a) General requirements. The Secretary shall, pursuant to section 107(f) of the Act, establish and supervise programs for the education and training of employers and employees in the recognition, avoidance and prevention of unsafe conditions in employments covered by the Act.

1926.21(b)(1) through (6)(i) and (ii)

(1) The employer should avail himself of the safety and health training programs the Secretary provides.

(2) The employer shall instruct each employee in the recognition and avoidance of unsafe conditions and the regulations applicable to his work environment to control or eliminate any hazards or other exposure to illness or injury.

(3) Employees required to handle or use poisons, caustics, and other harmful substances shall be instructed regarding their safe handling and use, and be made aware of the potential hazards, personal hygiene, and personal protective measures required.

(4) In job site areas where harmful plants or animals are present, employees who may be exposed shall be instructed regarding the potential hazards and how to avoid injury, and the first aid procedures to be used in the event of injury.

(5) Employees required to handle or use flammable liquids, gases, or toxic materials shall be instructed in the safe handling and use of these materials and made aware of the specific requirements contained in Subparts D, F, and other applicable subparts of this part.

(6)(i) All employees required to enter into confined or enclosed spaces shall be instructed as to the nature of the hazards involved, the necessary precautions to be taken, and in the use of protective and emergency equipment required. The employer shall comply with any specific regulations that apply to work in dangerous or potentially dangerous areas.

(ii) For purposes of subdivision (i) of this subparagraph, "confined or enclosed space" means any space having a limited means of egress, which is subject to the accumulation of toxic or flammable contaminants or has an oxygen deficient atmosphere. Confined or enclosed spaces include, but are not limited to, storage tanks, process vessels, bins, boilers, ventilation or exhaust ducts, sewers, underground utility vaults, tunnels, pipelines, and open top spaces more than 4 feet in depth such as pits, tubs, vaults, and vessels.

Medical Services and First Aid

1926.50(c)

(c) In the absence of an infirmary, clinic, hospital, or physician that is reasonably accessible in terms of time and distance to the worksite which is available for the treatment of injured employees, a person who has a valid certificate in first-aid training from the U.S. Bureau of Mines, the American Red Cross, or equivalent training that can be verified by documentary evidence, shall be available at the worksite to render first aid.

Ionizing Radiation

1926.53(b)

(b) Any activity which involves the use of radioactive materials or X-rays, whether or not under license from the Atomic Energy Commission [Nuclear Regulatory Commission] shall be performed by competent persons specially trained in the proper and safe operation of such equipment. In the case of materials used under Commission license, only persons actually licensed, or competent persons under the direction and supervision of the licensee, shall perform such work.

Nonionizing Radiation

1926.54(a) and (b)

(a) Only qualified and trained employees shall be assigned to install, adjust and operate laser equipment.

(b) Proof of qualification of the laser equipment operator shall be available and in possession of the operator at all times.

Gases, Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists

1926.55(b)


(b) To achieve compliance with paragraph (a) of this section, administrative or engineering controls must first be implemented whenever feasible. When such controls are not feasible to achieve full compliance, protective equipment or other protective measures shall be used to keep the exposure of employees to air contaminants within the limits prescribed in this section. Any equipment and technical measures used for this purpose must first be approved for each particular use by a competent industrial hygienist or other technically qualified person. Whenever respirators are used, their use shall comply with §1926.103.

Asbestos

1926.58(k)(3)(i) through (iii) (A) through (E) and (4)(i) and (ii)

(i) The employer shall institute a training program for all employees exposed to airborne concentrations of asbestos, in excess of the action level and/or excursion limit and shall ensure their participation in the program.

(ii) Training shall be provided prior to or at the time of initial assignment (unless the employee has received equivalent training within the previous 12 months) and at least annually thereafter.

(iii) The training program shall be conducted in a manner that the employee is able to understand. The employer shall ensure that each such employee is informed of the following:

(A) Methods of recognizing asbestos;

(B) The health effects associated with asbestos exposure;

(C) The relationship between smoking and asbestos in producing lung cancer;

(D) The nature of operations that could result in exposure to asbestos, the importance of necessary protective controls to minimize exposure including, as applicable, engineering controls, work practices, respirators, housekeeping procedures, hygiene facilities, protective clothing, decontamination procedures, emergency procedures, and waste disposal procedures, and any necessary instruction in the use of these controls;

(E) The purpose, proper use, fitting instructions and limitations of respirators as required by 29 CFR 1910.134.

(4) Access to training materials. (i) The employer shall make readily available to all affected employees without cost all written materials relating to the employee training program, including a copy of this regulation.

(ii) The employer shall provide to the Assistant Secretary and the Director, upon request, all information and training materials relating to the employee information and training program.

Hazard Communication, Construction

1926.59(h)(2)(i) through (iv)

(2) Training. Employee training should include at least:

(i) Methods and observations that may be used to detect the presence or release of a hazardous chemical in the work area (such as monitoring conducted by the employer, continuous monitoring devices, appearance or odor of hazardous chemicals when being released, etc.);

(ii) The physical and health hazards of the chemicals in the work area;

(iii) The measures employees can take to protect themselves from these hazards, including specific procedures the employer has implemented to protect employees from exposure to hazardous chemicals, such as appropriate work practices, emergency procedures, and personal protective equipment to be used; and,

(iv) The details of the hazard communication program to be developed by the employer, including an explanation of the labeling system and the material safety data sheet, and how employees can obtain and use the appropriate hazard information.

Lead in Construction

1926.62(l)(1)(i) through (iv); (2)(i) through (viii) and (3)(i) and (ii)

(1) General. (i) The employer shall communicate information concerning lead hazards according to the requirements of OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard for the construction industry, 29 CFR 1926.59, including but not limited to the requirements concerning warning signs and labels, material safety data sheets (MSDS), and employee information and training. In addition, employers shall comply with the following requirements:

(ii) for all employees who are subject to exposure to lead at or above the action level on any day or who are subject to exposure to lead compounds which may cause skin or eye irritation (e.g., lead arsenate, lead azide), the program in accordance with paragraph (l)(2) of this section and assure employee participation.

(iii) The employer shall provide the training program as initial training prior to the time of job assignment or prior to the start up date for this requirement, whichever comes last.

(iv) The employer shall also provide the training program at least annually for each employee who is subject to lead exposure at or above the action level on any day.

(2) Training program. The employer shall assure that each employee is trained in the following:

(i) The content of this standard and its appendices;

(ii) The specific nature of the operations which could result in exposure to lead above the action level;

(iii) The purpose, proper selection, fitting, use, and limitations of respirators;

(iv) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program, and the medical removal protection program including information concerning the adverse health effects associated with excessive exposure to lead (with particular attention to the adverse reproductive effects on both males and females and hazards to the fetus and additional precautions for employees who are pregnant);

(v) The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment including training of employees to follow relevant good work practices described in Appendix B of this section;

(vi) The contents of any compliance plan in effect;

(vii) Instructions to employees that chelating agents should not routinely be used to remove lead from their bodies and should not be used at all except under the direction of a licensed physician; and

(viii) The employee's right of access to records under 29 CFR 1910.20.

(3) Access to information and training materials.

(i)
The employer shall make readily available to all affected employees a copy of this standard and its appendices.

(ii) The employer shall provide, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and training program to affected employees and their designated representative, and to the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals

1926.64(g)(1)(i) and (ii)

(i) Each employee presently involved in operating a process, and each employee before being involved in operating a newly assigned process, shall be trained in an overview of the process and in the operating procedures as specified in paragraph (f) of this section. The training shall include emphasis on the specific safety and health hazards, emergency operations including shutdown, and safe work practices applicable to the employee's job tasks.

(ii) In lieu of initial training for those employees already involved in operating a process on May 26, 1992, an employer may certify in writing that the employee has the required knowledge, skills, and abilities to safely carry out the duties and responsibilities as specified in the operating procedures.

1926.64(g)(2)

(2) Refresher training. Refresher training shall be provided at least every three years, and more often if necessary, to each employee involved in operating a process to assure that the employee understands and adheres to the current operating procedures of the process. The employer, in consultation with the employees involved in operating the process, shall determine the appropriate frequency of refresher training.

1926.64(g)(3)

(3) Training documentation. The employer shall ascertain that each employee involved in operating a process has received and understood the training required by this paragraph. The employer shall prepare a record which contains the identity of the employee, the date of training, and the means used to verify that the employee understood the training.

Contract Employer Responsibilities 1926.64(h)(3)(i) through (iv)

(i) The contract employer shall assure that each contract employee is trained in the work practices necessary to safely perform his/her job.

(ii) The contract employer shall assure that each contract employee is instructed in the known potential fire, explosion, or toxic release hazards related to his/her job and the process, and the applicable provisions of the emergency action plan.

(iii) The contract employer shall document that each contract employee has received and understood the training required by this paragraph. The contract employer shall prepare a record which contains the identity of the contract employee, the date of training, and the means used to verify that the employee understood the training.

(iv) The contract employer shall assure that each contract employee follows the safety rules of the facility including the safe work practices required by paragraph (f)(4) of this section.

Mechanical Integrity 1926.64(j)(3)

(3) Training for process maintenance activities. The employer shall train each employee involved in maintaining the on-going integrity of process equipment in an overview of that process and its hazards and in the procedures applicable to the employee's job tasks to assure that the employee can perform the job tasks in a safe manner.

Hearing Protection

1926.101(b)

(b) Ear protective devices inserted in the ear shall be fitted or determined individually by competent persons.

Respiratory Protection

1926.103(c)(1)

(1) Employees required to use respiratory protective equipment approved for use in atmospheres immediately dangerous to life shall be thoroughly trained in its use. Employees required to use other types of respiratory protective equipment shall be instructed in the use and limitations of such equipment.

Fire Protection

1926.150(a)(5)

(5) As warranted by the project, the employer shall provide a trained and equipped firefighting organization (Fire Brigade) to assure adequate protection to life. "Fire brigade" means an organized group of employees that are knowledgeable, trained, and skilled in the safe evacuation of employees during emergency situations and in assisting in firefighting operations.

1926.150(c)(1)(viii)

(viii) Portable fire extinguishers shall be inspected periodically and maintained in accordance with Maintenance and Use of Portable Fire Extinguishers, NFPA No. l0A-1970.

From ANSI Standard 10A- 1970. The owner or occupant of a property in which fire extinguishers are located has an obligation for the care and use of these extinguishers at all times. By doing so, he is contributing to the protection of life and property. The nameplate(s) and instruction manual should be read and thoroughly understood by all persons who may be expected to use extinguishers.

1120. To discharge this obligation he should give proper attention to the inspection, maintenance, and recharging of this fire protective equipment. He should also train his personnel in the correct use of fire extinguishers on the different types of fires which may occur on his property.

3020. Persons responsible for performing maintenance operations come from three major groups:

"Trained industrial safety or maintenance personnel."

"Extinguisher service agencies."

"Individual owners (e.g., self-employed . . .)."

Signaling

1926.201(a)(2)

(2) Signaling directions by flagmen shall conform to American National Standards Institute D6.1 - 1971, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways.

Powder-Operated Hand Tools

1926.302(e)(1) and (12)

(1) Only employees who have been trained in the operation of the particular tool in use shall be allowed to operate a powder-actuated tool.

(12) Powder-actuated tools used by employees shall meet all other applicable requirements of American National Standards Institute, A10.3-1970, Safety Requirements for Explosive-Actuated Fastening Tools.

Woodworking Tools

1926.304(f)

(f) Other requirements. All woodworking tools and machinery shall meet other applicable requirements of American National Standards Institute, 01.1-1961, Safety Code for Woodworking Machinery.

From ANSI Standard 01.1-1961, Selection and Training of Operators. Before a worker is permitted to operate any woodworking machine, he shall receive instructions in the hazards of the machine and the safe method of its operation. Refer to A9.7 of the Appendix.

A9.7 Selection and Training of Operators. Operation of Machines, Tools, and Equipment. General.

(1) Learn the machine's applications and limitations, as well as the specific potential hazards peculiar to this machine. Follow available operating instructions and safety rules carefully.

(2) Keep working area clean and be sure adequate lighting is available.

(3) Do not wear loose clothing, gloves, bracelets, necklaces, or ornaments. Wear face, eye, ear, respiratory, and body protection devices, as indicated for the operation or environment.

(4) Do not use cutting tools larger or heavier than the machine is designed to accommodate. Never operate a cutting tool at greater speed than recommended.

(5) Keep hands well away from saw blades and other cutting tools. Use a push stock or push block to hold or guide the work when working close to cutting tool.

(6) Whenever possible, use properly locked clamps, jig, or vise to hold the work.

(7) Combs (feather boards) shall be provided for use when an applicable guard cannot be used.

(8) Never stand directly in line with a horizontally rotating cutting tool. This is particularly true when first starting a new tool, or a new tool is initially installed on the arbor.

(9) Be sure the power is disconnected from the machine before tools are serviced.

(10) Never leave the machine with the power on.

(11) Be positive that hold-downs and antikickback devices are positioned properly, and that the work piece is being fed through the cutting tool in the right direction.

(12) Do not use a dull, gummy, bent, or cracked cutting tool.

(13) Be sure that keys and adjusting wrenches have been removed before turning power on.

(14) Use only accessories designed for the machine.

(15) Adjust the machine for minimum exposure of cutting tool necessary to perform the operation.

Gas Welding and Cutting

1926.350(d)(1) through (6)

(d) Use of fuel gas. The employer shall thoroughly instruct employees in the safe use of fuel gas as follows:

(1) Before a regulator to a cylinder valve is connected, the valve shall be opened slightly and closed immediately. (This action is generally termed "cracking" and is intended to clear the valve of dust or dirt that might otherwise enter the regulator.) The person cracking the valve shall stand to one side of the outlet, not in front of it. The valve of a fuel gas cylinder shall not be cracked where the gas would reach welding work, sparks, flame, or other possible sources of ignition.

(2) The cylinder valve shall always be opened slowly to prevent damage to the regulator. For quick closing, valves on fuel gas cylinders shall not be opened more than 1-1/2 turns. When a special wrench is required, it shall be left in position on the stem of the valve while the cylinder is in use so that the fuel gas flow can be shut off quickly in case of an emergency. In the case of manifold or coupled cylinders, at least one such wrench shall always be available for immediate use. Nothing shall be placed on top of a fuel gas cylinder, when in use, which may damage the safety device or interfere with the quick closing of the valve.

(3) Fuel gas shall not be used from cylinders through torches or other devices which are equipped with shutoff valves without reducing the pressure through a suitable regulator attached to the cylinder valve or manifold.

(4) Before a regulator is removed from a cylinder valve, the cylinder valve shall always be closed and the gas released from the regulator.

(5) If, when the valve on a fuel gas cylinder is opened, there is found to be a leak around the valve stem, the valve shall be closed and the gland nut tightened. If this action does not stop the leak, the use of the cylinder shall be discontinued, and it shall be properly tagged and removed from the work area. In the event that fuel gas should leak from the cylinder valve, rather than from the valve stem, and the gas cannot be shut off, the cylinder shall be properly tagged and removed from the work area. If a regulator attached to a cylinder valve will effectively stop a leak through the valve seat, the cylinder need not be removed from the work area.

(6) If a leak should develop at a fuse plug or other safety device, the cylinder shall be removed from the work area.

1926.350(j)

(j) Additional rules. For Additional details not covered in this subpart, applicable technical portions of American National Standards Institute, Z49.1-1967, Safety in Welding and Cutting, shall apply.

From ANSI Standard Z49.1-1967, Fire Watch Duties. Fire watchers shall be trained in the use of fire extinguishing equipment. They shall be familiar with facilities for sounding an alarm in the event of a fire. They shall watch for fires in all exposed areas, try to extinguish them only when obviously within the capacity of the equipment available, or otherwise sound the alarm. A fire watch shall be maintained for at least a half hour after completion of welding or cutting operations to detect and extinguish possible smoldering fires.

Arc Welding and Cutting

1926.351(d)(1) through (5)

(d) Operating instructions. Employers shall instruct employees in the safe means of arc welding and cutting as follows:

(1) When electrode holders are to be left unattended, the electrodes shall be removed and the holders shall be so placed or protected that they cannot make electrical contact with employees or conducting objects.

(2) Hot electrode holders shall not be dipped in water; to do so may expose the arc welder or cutter to electric shock.

(3) When the arc welder or cutter has occasion to leave his work or to stop work for any appreciable length of time, or when the arc welding or cutting machine is to be moved, the power supply switch to the equipment shall be opened.

(4) Any faulty or defective equipment shall be reported to the supervisor.

(5) Other requirements, as outlined in Article 630, National Electrical Code, NFPA 70-1971; ANSI C1-1971 (Rev. of 1968), Electric Welders, shall be used when applicable.

Fire Prevention

1926.352(e)

(e) When the welding, cutting, or heating operation is such that normal fire prevention precautions are not sufficient, additional personnel shall be assigned to guard against fire while the actual welding, cutting, or heating operation is being performed, and for a sufficient period of time after completion of the work to ensure that no possibility of fire exists. Such personnel shall be instructed as to the specific anticipated fire hazards and how the firefighting equipment provided is to be used.

Welding, Cutting and Heating in Way of Preservative Coatings

1926.354(a)

(a) Before welding, cutting, or heating is commenced on any surface covered by a preservative coating whose flammability is not known, a test shall be made by a competent person to determine its flammability. Preservative coatings shall be considered to be highly flammable when scrapings burn with extreme rapidity.

Ground-Fault Protection

1926.404(b)(1)(iii)(B)

(iii)(B) The employer shall designate one or more competent persons [as defined in §1926.32(f)] to implement the program.

Scaffolding

1926.451(a)(3)

(3) No scaffold shall be erected, moved, dismantled, or altered except under the supervision of competent persons.

1926.451(b)(16)

(16) All wood pole scaffolds 60 feet or less in height shall be constructed and erected in accordance with Tables L-4 to 10. If they are over 60 feet in height, they shall be designed by a qualified engineer competent in this field, and it shall be constructed and erected in accordance with such design.

1926.451(c)(4) and (5)

(4) Tube and coupler scaffolds shall be limited in heights and working levels to those permitted in Tables L-10, 11, and 12. Drawings and specifications of all tube and coupler scaffolds above the limitations in Tables L-10, 11, and 12 shall be designed by a qualified engineer competent in this field.

(5) All tube and coupler scaffolds shall be constructed and erected to support four times the maximum intended loads, as set forth in Tables L-10, 11, and 12, or as set forth in the specifications by a licensed professional engineer competent in this field.

1926.451(d)(9)

(9) Drawings and specifications for all frame scaffolds over 125 feet in height above the base plates shall be designed by a registered professional engineer.

1926.451(g)(3)

(3) Unless outrigger scaffolds are designed by a registered professional engineer competent in this field, they shall be constructed and erected in accordance with Table L-13. Outrigger scaffolds, designed by a registered professional engineer, shall be constructed and erected in accordance with such design.

1926.451(h)(6) and (14)

(h) Masons' adjustable multiple-point suspension scaffolds. (6) Where the overhang exceeds 6 feet 6 inches, outrigger beams shall be composed of stronger beams or multiple beams and be installed under the supervision of a competent person.

(14) Each scaffold shall be installed or relocated under the supervision of a competent person.

1926.451(k)(10)

(k) Single-point adjustable suspension scaffolds. (10) For additional details not covered in this paragraph, applicable technical portions of American National Standards Institute, A120.1-1970, Power-Operated Devices for Exterior Building Maintenance Powered Platforms, shall be used.

From ANSI Standard A120.1-1970, "Qualified Operators. Powered platform shall be operated only by qualified persons who have been instructed in the operation and in the inspection, with respect to safe operating condition of the particular powered platform to be operated."

Guarding of Low-Pitched Roof Perimeters During the Performance of Built-Up Roofing Work

1926.500(g)(6)(i) and (ii)(a) through (f) and (iii)

(6) Training. (i) The employer shall provide a training program for all employees engaged in built-up roofing work so that they are able to recognize and deal with the hazards of falling associated with working near a roof perimeter. The employees shall also be trained in the safety procedures to be followed in order to prevent such falls.

(ii) The employer shall assure that employees engaged in built-up roofing work have been trained and instructed in the following areas:

(a) The nature of fall hazards in the work area near a roof edge;

(b) The function, use, and operation of the MSS system, warning line, and safety monitoring systems to be used;

(c) The correct procedures for erecting, maintaining, and disassembling the systems to be used;

(d) The role of each employee in the safety monitoring system when this system is used;

(e) The limitations on the use of mechanical equipment; and

(f) The correct procedures for the handling and storage of equipment and materials.

(iii) Training shall be provided for each newly hired employee, and for all other employees as necessary, to assure that employees maintain proficiency in the areas listed in paragraph (g)(6)(ii) of this section.

Fall Protection

1926.503(a)(1) and (2)(i) through (vii)

(a) Training program. (1) The employer shall provide a training program for each employee who might be exposed to fall hazards. The program shall enable each employee to recognize the hazards of falling and shall train each employee in the procedures to be followed in order to minimize these hazards.

(2) The employer shall ensure that each employee has been trained, as necessary, by a competent person qualified in the following areas:

(i) The nature of fall hazards in the work area;

(ii) The correct procedures for erecting, maintaining, disassembling, and inspecting the fall protection systems to be used;

(iii) The use and operation of guardrail systems, personal fall arrest systems, safety net systems, warning line systems, safety monitoring systems, controlled access zones, and other protection to be used;

(iv) The role of each employee in the safety monitoring system when this system is used;

(v) The limitations on the use of mechanical equipment during the performance of roofing work on low-sloped roofs;

(vi) The correct procedures for the handling and storage of equipment and materials and the erection of overhead protection; and

(vii) The standards contained in this subpart.

Cranes and Derricks

1926.550(a)(1), (5), and (6)

(1) The employer shall comply with the manufacturer's specifications and limitations applicable to the operation of any and all cranes and derricks. Where manufacturer's specifications are not available, the limitations assigned to the equipment shall be based on the determinations of a qualified engineer competent in this field and such determinations will be appropriately documented and recorded. Attachments used with cranes shall not exceed the capacity, rating, or scope recommended by the manufacturer.

(5) The employer shall designate a competent person who shall inspect all machinery and equipment prior to each use, and during use, to make sure it is in safe operating condition. Any deficiencies shall be repaired, or defective parts replaced, before continued use.

(6) A thorough, annual inspection of the hoisting machinery shall be made by a competent person, or by a government or private agency recognized by the U.S. Department of Labor. The employer shall maintain a record of the dates and results of inspections for each hoisting machine and piece of equipment.

1926.550(g)(4)(i)(A)

(4) Personnel platforms (i) Design criteria. (A) The personnel platform and suspension system shall be designed by a qualified engineer or a qualified person competent in structural design.

1926.550(g)(5)(iv)

(iv) A visual inspection of the crane or derrick, rigging, personnel platform, and the crane or derrick base support or ground shall be conducted by a competent person immediately after the trial lift to determine whether the testing has exposed any defect or produced any adverse effect upon any component or structure.

Material Hoists, Personnel Hoists, and Elevators

1926.552(a)(1)

(1) The employer shall comply with the manufacturer's specifications and limitations applicable to the operation of all hoists and elevators. Where manufacturer's specifications are not available, the limitations assigned to the equipment shall be based on the determinations of a professional engineer competent in the field.

1926.552(b)(7)

(7) All material hoist towers shall be designed by a licensed professional engineer.

1926.552(c)(15) and (17)(i)

(c) Personnel hoists. (15) Following assembly and erection of hoists, and before being put in service, an inspection and test of all functions and safety devices shall be made under the supervision of a competent person. A similar inspection and test is required following major alteration of an existing installation. All hoists shall be inspected and tested at not more than 3-month intervals. Records shall be maintained and kept on file for the duration of the job.

(17)(i) Personnel hoists used in bridge tower construction shall be approved by a registered professional engineer and erected under the supervision of a qualified engineer competent in this field.

Material Handling Equipment

1926.602(c)(1)(vi)

(c) Lifting and hauling equipment (other than equipment covered under Subpart N of this part).

(1)(vi) All industrial trucks in use shall meet the applicable requirements of design, construction, stability, inspection, testing, maintenance, and operation, as defined in American National Standards Institute B56.1-1969, Safety Standards for Powered Industrial Trucks.

From ANSI Standard B56.1-1969, "Operator Training. Only trained and authorized operators shall be permitted to operate a powered industrial truck. Methods shall be devised to train operators in the safe operation of powered industrial trucks. Badges or other visual indication of the operators' authorization should be displayed at all times during work period."

Site Clearing

1926.604(a)(1)

(1) Employees engaged in site clearing shall be protected from hazards of irritant and toxic plants and suitably instructed in the first-aid treatment available.

Excavations - General Protection Requirements (Excavations, Trenching, and Shoring)

1926.651(c)(1)(i)

(c) Access and egress (1) Structural ramps. (i) Structural ramps that are used solely by employees as a means of access or egress from excavations shall be designed by a competent person. Structural ramps used for access or egress of equipment shall be designed by a competent person qualified in structural design, and shall be constructed in accordance with the design.

1926.651(h)(2) and (3)

(h) Protection from hazards associated with water accumulation. (2) If water is controlled or prevented from accumulating by the use of water removal equipment, the water removal equipment and operations shall be monitored by a competent person to ensure proper operation.

(3) If excavation work interrupts the natural drainage of surface water (such as streams), diversion ditches, dikes, or other suitable means shall be used to prevent surface water from entering the excavation and to provide adequate drainage of the area adjacent to the excavation. Excavations subject to runoff from heavy rains will require an inspection by a competent person and compliance with paragraphs (h)(1) and (h)(2) of this section.

1926.651(i)(1)

(i) Stability of adjacent structures. (1) Where the stability of adjoining buildings, walls, or other structures is endangered by excavation operations, support systems such as shoring, bracing, or underpinning shall be provided to ensure the stability of such structures for the protection of employees.

1926.651(i)(2)(iii)

(iii) A registered professional engineer has approved the determination that the structure is sufficiently removed from the excavation so as to be unaffected by the excavation activity; or

1926.651(i)(2)(iv)

(iv) A registered professional engineer has approved the determination that such excavation work will not pose a hazard to employees.

1926.651(k)(1) and (2)

(k) Inspections. (1) Daily inspections of excavations, the adjacent areas, and protective systems shall be made by a competent person for evidence of a situation that could result in possible cave-ins, indications of failure of protective systems, hazardous atmospheres, or other hazardous conditions. An inspection shall be conducted by the competent person prior to the start of work and as needed throughout the shift. Inspections shall also be made after every rainstorm or other hazard increasing occurrence. These inspections are only required when employee exposure can be reasonably anticipated.

(2) Where the competent person finds evidence of a situation that could result in a possible cave-in, indications of failure of protective systems, hazardous atmospheres, or other hazardous conditions, exposed employees shall be removed from the hazardous area until the necessary precautions have been taken to ensure their safety.

Concrete and Masonry Construction

1926.701(a)

(a) No construction loads shall be placed on a concrete structure or portion of a concrete structure unless the employer determines, based on information received from a person, who is qualified in structural design, that the structure or portion of the structure is capable of supporting the loads.

1926.703(b)(8)(i)

(i) The design of the shoring shall be prepared by a qualified designer and the erected shoring shall be inspected by an engineer qualified in structural design.

Bolting, Riveting, Fitting-Up, and Plumbing-Up

1926.752(d)(4)

(4) Plumbing-up guys shall be removed only under the supervision of a competent person.

Underground Construction

1926.800(d)

(d) Safety instruction. All employees shall be instructed in the recognition and avoidance of hazards associated with underground construction activities including, where appropriate, the following subjects:

(1) Air monitoring;

(2) Ventilation;

(3) Illumination;

(4) Communications;

(5) Flood control;

(6) Mechanical equipment;

(7) Personal protective equipment;

(8) Explosives;

(9) Fire prevention and protection; and

(10) Emergency procedures, including evacuation plans and check-in/check-out systems.

1926.800(g)(2)

(g) Emergency provisions (2) Self-rescuers. The employer shall provide self-rescuers having current approval from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and the Mine Safety and Health Administration to be immediately available to all employees at work stations in underground areas where employees might be trapped by smoke or gas. The selection, issuance, use, and care of respirators shall be in accordance with paragraphs (b) and (c) of 1926.103.

1926.800(g)(5)(iii) through (v)

(g) Emergency provisions. (5) Rescue teams. (iii) Rescue team members shall be qualified in rescue procedures, the use and limitations of breathing apparatus, and the use of firefighting equipment. Qualifications shall be reviewed not less than annually.

(iv) On jobsite's where flammable or noxious gases are encountered or anticipated in hazardous quantities, rescue team members shall practice donning and using self-contained breathing apparatus monthly.

(v) The employer shall ensure that rescue teams are familiar with conditions at the jobsite.

1926.800(j)(1)(i)(A)

(j) Air quality and monitoring. (1) General (i)(A) The employer shall assign a competent person who shall perform all air monitoring required by this section.

(B) Where this paragraph requires monitoring of airborne contaminants "as often as necessary," the competent person shall make a reasonable determination as to which substances to monitor and how frequently to monitor taking into consideration: location of jobsite; geology of the jobsite; presence of air contaminants in nearby jobsite's and changes in levels of substances monitored on prior shifts; and, work practices and jobsite conditions including use of diesel engines, explosives, fuel gas, volume and flow of ventilation, visible atmospheric conditions, decompression of the atmosphere, welding, cutting, and hot work, and employees' physical reactions to working underground.

1926.800(j)(1)(vi)(A) and (B)

(1) Air quality and monitoring. (1) General (vi) When the competent person determines, on the basis of air monitoring results or other information, that air contaminants may be present in sufficient quantity to be dangerous to life, the employer shall:

(A) Prominently post a notice at all entrances to the underground jobsite to inform all entrants of the hazardous condition; and

(B) Ensure that the necessary precautions are taken.

1926.800(o)(3)(i)(A)

(o) Ground support (3) Underground areas (i)(A) A competent person shall inspect the roof, face, and walls of the work area at the start of each shift and as often as necessary to determine ground stability.

1926.800(o)(3)(iv)(B)

(o) Ground support (3) Underground areas (iv)(B) A competent person shall determine whether rock bolts meet the necessary torque, and shall determine the testing frequency in light of the bolt system, ground conditions, and the distance from vibration sources.

1926.800(t)(3)(xix) and (xx)

(t) Hoisting unique to underground construction. (3) Additional requirements for hoists. (xix) A competent person shall visually check all hoisting machinery, equipment, anchorages, and hoisting rope at the beginning of each shift during hoist use, as necessary.

(xx) Each safety device shall be checked by a competent person at least weekly during hoist use to ensure suitable operation and safe condition.

Compressed Air

1926.803(a)(1) and (2)

(1) There shall be present, at all times, at least one competent person designated by and representing the employer, who shall be familiar with this subpart in all respects, and responsible for full compliance with these and other applicable subparts.

(2) Every employee shall be instructed in the rules and regulations which concern his safety or the safety of others.

1926.803(b)(1) and (10)(xii)

(1) There shall be retained one or more licensed physicians familiar with and experienced in the physical requirements and the medical aspects of compressed air work and the treatment of decompression illness. He shall be available at all times while work is in progress in order to provide medical supervision of employees employed in compressed air work. He shall himself be physically qualified and be willing to enter a pressurized environment.

(10) The medical lock shall:

(xii) Be in constant charge of an attendant under the direct control of the retained physician. The attendant shall be trained in the use of the lock and suitably instructed regarding steps to be taken in the treatment of employee exhibiting symptoms compatible with a diagnosis of decompression illness.

1926.803(e)(1)

(1) Every employee going under air pressure for the first time shall be instructed on how to avoid excessive discomfort.

1926.803(f)(2) and (3)

(2) In the event it is necessary for an employee to be in compressed air more than once in a 24-hour period, the appointed physician shall be responsible for the establishment of methods and procedures of decompression applicable to repetitive exposures.

(3) If decanting is necessary, the appointed physician shall establish procedures before any employee is permitted to be decompressed by decanting methods. The period of time that the employees spend at atmospheric pressure between the decompression following the shift and recompression shall not exceed 5 minutes.

1926.803(h)(1)

(1) At all times there shall be a thoroughly experienced, competent, and reliable person on duty at the air control valves as a gauge tender who shall regulate the pressure in the working areas. During tunneling operations, one gauge tender may regulate the pressure in not more than two headings: Provided, that the gauge and controls are all in one location. In caisson work, there shall be a gauge tender for each caisson.

Preparatory Operations

1926.850(a)

(a) Prior to permitting employees to start demolition operations, an engineering survey shall be made, by a competent person, of the structure to determine the condition of the framing, floors, and walls, and possibility of unplanned collapse of any portion of the structure. Any adjacent structure where employees may be exposed shall also be similarly checked. The employer shall have in writing evidence that such a survey has been performed.

Chutes

1926.852(c)

(c) A substantial gate shall be installed in each chute at or near the discharge end. A competent employee shall be assigned to control the operation of the gate, and the backing and loading of trucks.

Mechanical Demolition

1926.859(g)

(g) During demolition, continuing inspections by a competent person shall be made as the work progresses to detect hazards resulting from weakened or deteriorated floors, or walls, or loosened material. No employee shall be permitted to work where such hazards exist until they are corrected by shoring, bracing, or other effective means.

General Provisions (Blasting and Use of Explosives)

1926.900(a)

(a) The employer shall permit only authorized and qualified persons to handle and use explosives.

1926.900(k)(3)(i)

(i) The prominent display of adequate signs, warning against the use of mobile radio transmitters, on all roads within 1,000 feet of blasting operations. Whenever adherence to the 1,000-foot distance would create an operational handicap, a competent person shall be consulted to evaluate the particular situation, and alternative provisions may be made which are adequately designed to prevent any premature firing of electric blasting caps. A description of any such alternatives shall be reduced to writing and shall be certified as meeting the purposes of this subdivision by the competent person consulted. The description shall be maintained at the construction site during the duration of the work, and shall be available for inspection by representatives of the Secretary of Labor.

1926.900(q)

(q) All loading and firing shall be directed and supervised by competent persons thoroughly experienced in this field.

Blaster Qualifications

1926.901(c), (d), and (e)

(c) A blaster shall be qualified, by reason of training, knowledge, or experience, in the field of transporting, storing, handling, and use of explosives, and have a working knowledge of State and local laws and regulations which pertain to explosives.

(d) Blasters shall be required to furnish satisfactory evidence of competency in handling explosives and performing in a safe manner the type of blasting that will be required.

(e) The blaster shall be knowledgeable and competent in the use of each type of blasting method used.

Surface Transportation of Explosives

1926.902(b) and (i)

(b) Motor vehicles or conveyances transporting explosives shall only be driven by, and be in the charge of, a licensed driver who is physically fit. He shall be familiar with the local, State, and Federal regulations governing the transportation of explosives.

(i) Each vehicle used for transportation of explosives shall be equipped with a fully charged fire extinguisher, in good condition. An Underwriters Laboratory-approved extinguisher of not less than 10-ABC rating will meet the minimum requirement. The driver shall be trained in the use of the extinguisher on his vehicle.

Firing the Blast

1926.909(a)

(a) A code of blasting signals equivalent to Table U-1, shall be posted on one or more conspicuous places at the operation, and all employees shall be required to familiarize themselves with the code and conform to it. Danger signs shall be placed at suitable locations.

Table U-1

WARNING SIGNAL    - A 1-minute series of long blasts 5 minutes prior to blast signal.
BLAST SIGNAL         - A series of short blasts 1 minute prior to the shot.
ALL CLEAR SIGNAL   - A prolonged blast following the inspection of blast area.

General Requirements (Power Transmission and Distribution)

1926.950(d)(1)(ii)(a) through (c), (vi), and (vii)

(1) When deenergizing lines and equipment operated in excess of 600 volts, and the means of disconnecting from electric energy is not visibly open or visibly locked out, the provisions of subdivisions (i) through (vii) of this subparagraph shall be complied with:

(ii) Notification and assurance from the designated employee [a qualified person delegated to perform specific duties under the conditions existing] shall be obtained that:

(a) All switches and disconnectors through which electric energy may be supplied to the particular section of line or equipment to be worked have been deenergized;

(b) All switches and disconnectors are plainly tagged indicating that men are at work;

(c) And that where design of such switches and disconnectors permits, they have been rendered inoperable.

(vi) When more than one independent crew requires the same line or equipment to be deenergized, a prominent tag for each such independent crew shall be placed on the line or equipment by the designated employee in charge.

(vii) Upon completion of work on deenergized lines or equipment, each designated employee in charge shall determine that all employees in his crew are clear, that protective grounds installed by his crew have been removed, and he shall report to the designated authority that all tags protecting his crew may be removed.

1926.950(d)(2)(ii)

(2) When a crew working on a line or equipment can clearly see that the means of disconnecting from electric energy are visibly open or visibly locked-out, the provisions of subdivisions (i) and (ii) of this paragraph shall apply:

(ii) Upon completion of work on deenergized lines or equipment, each designated employee in charge shall determine that all employees in his crew are clear, that protective grounds installed by his crew have been removed, and he shall report to the designated authority that all tags protecting his crew may be removed.

1926.950(e)(1)(i) and (ii) and (2)

(1) The employer shall provide training or require that his employees are knowledgeable and proficient in:

(i) Procedures involving emergency situations, and

(ii) First-aid fundamentals including resuscitation.

(2) In lieu of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph the employer may comply with the provisions of §1926.50(c) regarding first-aid requirements.

Overhead Lines

1926.955(b)(3)(i)

(3)(i) A designated employee shall be used in directing mobile equipment adjacent to footing excavations.

1926.955(b)(8) and (d)(1)

(8) A designated employee shall be utilized to determine that required clearance is maintained in moving equipment under or near energized lines.

(d) Stringing adjacent to energized lines. (1) Prior to stringing parallel to an existing energized transmission line a competent determination shall be made to ascertain whether dangerous induced voltage buildups will occur, particularly during switching and ground fault conditions. When there is a possibility that such dangerous induced voltage may exist the employer shall comply with the provisions of subparagraphs (2) through (9) of this paragraph in addition to the provisions of paragraph (c) of this §1926.955, unless the line is worked as energized.

1926.955(e)(1) and (4)

(1) Employees shall be instructed and trained in the live-line bare-hand technique and the safety requirements pertinent thereto before being permitted to use the technique on energized circuits.

(4) All work shall be personally supervised by a person trained and qualified to perform live-line bare-hand work.

Underground Lines

1926.956(b)(1)

(1) While work is being performed in manholes, an employee shall be available in the immediate vicinity to render emergency assistance as may be required. This shall not preclude the employee in the immediate vicinity from occasionally entering a manhole to provide assistance, other than emergency. This requirement does not preclude a qualified employee [a person who by reason of experience or training is familiar with the operation to be performed and the hazards involved], working alone, from entering for brief periods of time, a manhole where energized cables or equipment are in service, for the purpose of inspection, housekeeping, taking readings, or similar work if such work can be performed safely.

Construction in Energized Substations

1926.957(a)(1)

(1) When construction work is performed in an energized substation, authorization shall be obtained from the designated, authorized person [a qualified person delegated to perform specific duties under the conditions existing] before work is started.

1926.957(d)(1)

(1) Work on or adjacent to energized control panels shall be performed by designated employees.

1926.957(e)(1)

(1) Use of vehicles, gin poles, cranes, and other equipment in restricted or hazardous areas shall at all times be controlled by designated employees.

Ladders

1926.1053(b)(15)

(15) Ladders shall be inspected by a competent person for visible defects on a periodic basis and after any occurrence that could affect their safe use.

1926.1060(a)(1)(i) through (v) and (b)

The following training provisions clarify the requirements of §1926.21(b)(2), regarding the hazards addressed in Subpart X.

(a) The employer shall provide a training program for each employee using ladders and stairways, as necessary. The program shall enable each employee to recognize hazards related to ladders and stairways, and shall train each employee in the procedures to be followed to minimize these hazards.

(1) The employer shall ensure that each employee has been trained by a competent person in the following areas, as applicable:

(i) The nature of fall hazards in the work area;

(ii) The correct procedures for erecting, maintaining, and disassembling the fall protection systems to be used;

(iii) The proper construction, use, placement, and care in handling of all stairways and ladders;

(iv) The maximum intended load-carrying capacities of ladders used; and

(v) The standards contained in this subpart.

(b) Retraining shall be provided for each employee as necessary so that the employee maintains the understanding and knowledge acquired through compliance with this section.