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Additional Resources

Structural Collapses During Construction - Lessons Learned, 1990-2008 [PDF - 544 KB]. OSHA investigated 96 structural collapses during construction involving fatalities and injuries from 1990 to 2008. The most probable causes of each of these incidents are summarized in this article, which was published in STRUCTURE magazine, December 2010. Construction errors contributed to 80% of the structural collapses while the remaining 20% of the incidents are attributed to structural design flaws on the part of either the structural engineer of record (SER) or a structural engineer retained by a contractor to design specific members.

Workers' Compensation Costs of Falls in Construction [PPT* - 767 KB]. Two major classes of hazardous work involved in construction are roofing and carpentry. Among these workers, falls from heights comprise significant portions of injuries and costs. This analysis looks at workers’ compensation data for injuries resulting from falls from elevations, and from falls from ladders and scaffolds. The data are collected from insured employers in 38 states, a group which comprises approximately 1/3 of total workers’ compensation benefits. (The remainder includes the other 13 states, plus benefits to injured workers at self-insured firms.) Among insured employers in NCCI states in 2005-2007: Falls from Elevations by roofers cost approximately $54 million per year. Average lost time claims cost approximately $106,000 each in wage replacement benefits, medical care, and rehabilitation services. Falls from Elevations by Carpenters cost approximately $93 million per year. Average lost time claims cost nearly $98,000 each. Falls from ladders or scaffolds by roofers cost approximately $19 million per year. Average lost time claims cost approximately $68,000 each. Falls from ladders or scaffolds by Carpenters cost approximately $64 million per year. Average lost time claims cost nearly $98,000 each.

Prevention through Design (PtD). OSHA Alliance Program - Construction Workplace Design Solutions. OSHA encourages design professionals to incorporate safety in design to facilitate safe construction, as far as possible. PtD has the potential for reducing injuries and fatalities at construction sites by incorporating features during the design phase that will enhance constructability. PtD will result in fewer delays in construction due to injuries, and savings in workers compensation premiums. Employers should have a system in place where safety and health professionals work with design engineers in "designing out" hazards throughout the design phase of their products. See NIOSH's efforts on PtD.

OSHA Construction Publications, Fact Sheets, QuickCards. Provides an alphabetical listing of OSHA publications, guidance documents, fact sheets, quickcards, posters, and more. These publications provide information from—detailed examinations of specific safety and health issues, basic background information on safety and health hazards, safety and health information for employers/employees—to safety guidance for employees and employers in specific industries.

OSHA Construction Articles and Other Documents and Publications. Provides links to articles published in OSHA's "Job Safety and Health Quarterly" magazine and other public documents.

OSHA Construction Alliances. Provides a listing of signed alliances specific to construction, each providing information, guidance, and access to training resources that will help protect employees' health and safety.

OSHA Publications

OSHA Construction Partnerships. Provides a listing of partnership agreements designed to encourage, assist, and recognize partner efforts to eliminate serious hazards and achieve model workplace safety and health practices. Each OSHA Strategic Partnership establishes specific goals, strategies, and performance measures to improve worker safety and health.

OSHA Partnerships

OSHA Safety and Health Topics. Provides access to selected occupational safety and health information. The subjects of these pages include information specific to construction workplace hazards.

OSHA Safety and Health Topics

OSHA Susan Harwood Training Grant - Grantee Produced Training Materials. Provides training and education programs for workers and employers on the recognition, avoidance, abatement, and prevention of safety and health hazards in their workplaces through Susan Harwood Training Program grants.

OSHA Susan Harwood Training Grant - Grantee Produced Training Materials

OSHA eTools

Construction. Construction can be a safe occupation when workers are aware of the hazards, and an effective Safety and Health Program is used. This eTool will help workers identify and control the hazards that commonly cause the most serious construction injuries.

Construcción. Este eTool le ayudará a identificar y a controlar los peligros que causan comúnmente las lesiones más serias de la construcción.


Ergonomics: Solutions for Electrical Contractors. Between 1999 and 2002, more than 30 percent of all workers' compensation claims from the Independent Electrical Contractors (IEC) were related to ergonomics. This amounted to more than $10 million in claims in just four years. This eTool describes common hazards that electrical contractors may encounter and possible solutions for these hazards. The eTool was developed in cooperation with IEC as part of the OSHA-IEC Alliance.

Ergonomics: Solutions for Electrical Contractors

Scaffolding. An estimated 2.3 million construction workers, or 65% of the construction industry, work on scaffolds frequently. Protecting these workers from scaffold-related accidents would prevent 4,500 injuries and 50 deaths every year, at a savings for American employers of $90 million in workdays not lost. These eTools provide illustrated examples of safe scaffolding safety. Hazards are identified, as well as the controls that keep those hazards from becoming tragedies. The Supported Scaffold and Suspended Scaffold modules are now available.


Steel Erection. Despite being covered since 1971 under the original steel erection standard, America's 56,000 steel erectors continue to suffer 35 fatal accidents per year, a rate of one death per 1,600 workers. OSHA estimates that 30 of those deaths, as well as nearly 1,150 annual lost-workday injuries, will be averted by compliance with provisions of the new standard, developed with industry and labor through negotiated rulemaking. To that end, this eTool has been created to educate employers and workers about the revised standard (Subpart R).

Steel Erection

Expert Advisors

Asbestos. This computer program is intended to provide an introduction to the scope and logic of the regulation for general industry, construction, and maritime.

Lead in Construction. This computer program provides an introduction to the scope and logic of the regulation and summary guidance to facilitate compliance.

Cadmium Biological Monitoring. This electronic tool contains the biological monitoring provisions of the January 1, 1999, Cadmium Standard.

Other Industry eTools and Expert Advisors

Accessibility Assistance: Contact the OSHA Directorate of Construction at 202-693-2020 for assistance accessing PDF materials.

*These files are provided for downloading.

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