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Section 6

**DRAFT DRAFT DRAFT DRAFT**

U.S.D.O.L. - OSHA
IN THE STATE OF MAINE

LOGGING LOCAL EMPHASIS PROGRAM
SAMPLE SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS FOR THE LOGGING INDUSTRY

INDEX OF SAMPLE DOCUMENTS

 
Text from the OSHA Logging Preamble


Sample Logging Contractor's Work Rules

Sample Logging Contractor's Hazard Communications Program

Sample Lockout/Tag Out Procedure

Sample Logging Contractor's Safety and Health Program

Sample Bloodborne Pathogens Exposure Control Plan

Sample Logging Contractor's Safety and Health Plan Outline



LOGGING CONTRACTOR'S WORK RULES

SAFETY AWARENESS

Safety is a top priority. As a logging contractor, (also referred to "I", or the "contractor" or the "company", or the "owner/operator" or "employer"), I and all company employees must comply with all policies and work rules. Compliance will assure a safe and healthy work environment.

A safety and health program will effectively eliminate or control hazards faced by company employees. The success of a safety program hinges on clearly stated work rules, regularly scheduled and informative safety meetings, safety practices and policy review, a thorough self-auditing program, and the assistance and cooperation of all employees. As a logging contractor, I and all company employees must follow the standards and work rules set forth in the safety and health program. As a logging contractor I must follow a progressive disciplinary policy and use it to enforce the safety and health program. ADHERENCE TO THE SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM WILL MINIMIZE THE RISK OF INJURY.

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

Personal Protective Equipment shall be worn by myself and all employees at all times to protect them from personal injury. Job description and work requirements will determine when, where and what specific equipment is to be used.

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

The employer shall assure that personal protective equipment, including any equipment provided by an employee, is maintained in a serviceable condition.

Note: "Serviceable condition" is defined as "a state or ability of a tool, machine, vehicle or other device to operate as it was intended by the manufacturer to operate."

The employer shall assure that personal protective equipment, including any personal protective equipment provided by an employee, is inspected before initial use and then at the start of each work shift. Defects or damage shall be repaired or the unserviceable personal protective equipment shall be replaced before work resumes.

The employer shall provide, at no cost to the employee, and assure that each employee handling wire rope wears hand protection.

The employer shall provide, at no cost to the employee, and assure that each employee who operates a chain saw wears ballistic nylon leg protection or other leg protection the employer provides equivalent protection. The leg protection shall cover the full length of the thigh to the top of the boot on each leg to protect against contact with a moving chain saw. Note: It is recommended that leg protective garments meet or exceed the cut resistance performance standards outlined in Standard Leg Protection for Chain Saw Users (92-A-12) published by American Pulpwood Association, as measured by the ASTM F1414 standard test method.

The employer shall assure that each employee shall wear foot protection, such as heavy-duty logging boots, that are waterproof or water repellant, cover and provide support to the ankle, and provide cut resistance to chain saws. Calk-soled boots or other slip-resistant type boots may be worn provided that foot protection otherwise required by this paragraph is met. (It is recommended that foot protective devices meet or exceed the cut resistance performance standards outlined in Standard Foot Protection for Chain Saw Users (94-A-3) as published by American Pulpwood Association, as measured by the ASTM F1458 standard test method.)

The employer shall provide, at no cost to the employee, and assure that each employee who works in an area where there is potential for head injury from falling or flying objects wears head protection meeting the requirements of Subpart I of 29 CFR Part 1910.

The employer shall provide, at no cost to the employee, and assure that each employee who works in an area where there is a potential for injury due to falling or flying objects, wears eye and face protection meeting the requirements of Subpart I of 29 CFR Part 1910. Logger-type mesh screens are acceptable eye and face protection for chain saw users.

While the new logging standards do not specifically address hearing protection, OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910.95 Occupational Noise Exposure requires noise level monitoring, audiometric testing of employees, and that employees have a choice of hearing protection – muffs or plugs – if exposure is higher than 85 decibels. Chain saw operators and logging equipment operators will fall within the OSHA hearing conservation standards.

This section lists personal protection equipment required for employees doing a certain job.

Job Category:
  1. Supervisor/Foreman: Hard Hat and Safety Boots
    Any time a supervisor or foreman is working in any job category below they shall wear all personal protective equipment required for that job category.
  2. Feller:
    • Hard Hat - Leg Protection
    • Eye Protection - Safety Boots
    • Hearing Protection - Gloves
  3. Skidder/Skidder Operator:
    • Hard Hat - Leg Protection
    • Eye Protection - Safety Boots
    • Hearing Protection - Gloves
  4. Yard/Yard Man/Bunch Man:
    • Hard Hat - Leg Protection
    • Eye Protection - Safety Boots
    • Hearing Protection - Gloves
  5. Loader/Loader Operator:
    • Hard Hat
    • Hearing Protection
    • Safety Boots
  6. Chipper/Chipper Operator:
    • Hard Hat - Hearing Protection
    • Safety Boots - Eye and Face Protection
  7. Truck/Truck Driver:
    • Hard Hat
    • Safety Boots
  8. Mechanic:
    • Hard Hat (when exposed to hazards created by any of the above operations)
    • Eye or Face Protection (when appropriate)
    • Hand Protection (if applicable)
    • Safety Boots
  9. Dozer/Dozer Operator:
    • Hard Hat
    • Safety Boots
    • Hearing Protection
Note: Personal protective equipment other than foot protection – boots – must be provided by the employer at no cost to the employee. This requirement has not existed in the past.

MACHINES

OSHA defines "machine" as a piece of stationary or mobile equipment having a self-contained power plant, that is operated off-road and used for the movement of material. Machines include but are not limited to tractors, skidders, front-end loaders, scrapers, graders, bulldozers, swing yarders, log stackers and mechanical felling devices, such as tree shears and feller bunchers.

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
  • The employer shall assure that each machine, including any machine provided by an employee, is maintained in serviceable condition.
  • The employer shall assure that each machine, including any machine provided by an employee, is inspected before initial use and before each work shift. Defects or damage shall be repaired or the unserviceable machine shall be replaced before work is commenced.
  • The employer shall assure that operating and maintenance instructions are available on the machine or in the area where the machine is being operated. Each machine operator and maintenance employee shall comply with the operating and maintenance instructions.
MACHINE OPERATION
  • The machine shall be started and operated only by a designated person.
Note: A "Designated Person" is an employee who has the requisite knowledge, training and experience to perform specific tasks.
  • Stationary logging machines and their components shall be anchored or otherwise stabilized to prevent movement during operation.
  • The rated capacity of any machine shall not be exceeded.
  • The machine shall not be operated on any slope which is greater than the maximum slope recommended by the manufacturer.
  • Before starting or moving any machine, the operator shall determine that no employee is in the path of the machine.
  • The equipment operator shall not operate movable elements (boom, grapple, load, etc.) close to or over personnel.
  • The machine shall be operated only from the operator's station or as otherwise recommended by the manufacturer.
  • The machine shall be operated at such a distance from employees and other machines such that operation will not create a hazard for an employee.
  • No employee other than the operator shall ride on any mobile machine unless seating, seat belts and other protection equivalent to that provided for the operator are provided and used when the machine is traveling.
  • No employee shall ride on any load.
  • Before the machine operator dismounts, the machine brake lock or parking brakes shall be applied. Each moving element, such as but not limited to blades, buckets and shears, shall be grounded.
  • After the machine engine is shut down, pressure or stored energy from hydraulic pneumatic storage devices shall be discharged.
  • The rated capacity of any vehicle transporting a machine shall not be exceeded.
  • The machine shall be loaded, secured and unloaded so that it will not create a hazard for any employee. Note: This requirement covers the loading, securing, and unloading of a machine on and off a transport vehicle.
  • Equipment controls shall be checked to assure proper function and response before work is started.
  • Stability limitations of equipment shall not be exceeded.
  • Walking and working surfaces shall be kept free of any material which might contribute to slipping and falling.
  • No flammable waste or debris may be kept on walking or working surfaces.
  • Steel decks of machines and other machine work stations shall have safety tread or other slip-resistant material.
  • A seat belt will be provided for each vehicle or machine operator.
  • Each employee will use the available seat belt while the vehicle or machine is being operated.
  • Each employee will securely and tightly fasten the seat belt to restrain the employee within the vehicle or machine cab;
  • Each machine seat belt will meet the requirements of the Society of Automotive Engineers Standard SAE J386, June 1985, "Operator Restraint Systems for Off-Road Work Machines."
Note: Seat belts on 'machines' – tractors, skidders, front-end loaders, scrapers, graders, bulldozers, swing yarders, log stackers, and mechanical felling devices such as tree shears and feller-bunchers – should have tags of identification listing SAE J386, June 1985, or in the case of older machines SAE J386-1969).
  • Seat belts will not be removed from any vehicle or machine. The employer shall replace or cause to be replaced each seat belt which has been removed from any vehicle or machine that was equipped with seat belts at the time of manufacture.
  • Each seat belt will be maintained in a serviceable condition.
MACHINE MAINTENANCE

The logging contractor shall develop and implement Lock Out/Tag Out procedures appropriate to their logging operation and equipment. (See Appendix B of the Work Rules).
  • Each machine, vehicle and portable powered tool shall be shut off during fueling.
  • Flammable or combustible liquids shall not be used to start fires.
  • Equipment engines shall be shut down and the park brake set during servicing and repairs except where operation is necessary for adjustment.
  • Each tractor, skidder, swing yarder, log stacker and mechanical felling device, such as a tree shear or feller-buncher, or other similar machine placed into initial service after February 9, 1995, shall be equipped with falling object protective structure (FOPS) and/or rollover protective structure (ROPS). The employer shall replace or cause to be replaced FOPS or ROPS which have been removed from any machine. Note: This requirement does not apply to machines which are capable of 360-degree rotation.
  • ROPS shall be installed, tested, and maintained in accordance with the Society of Automotive Engineers SAE J1040, April 1988, "Performance Criteria for Rollover Protective Structures (ROPS) for Construction, Earthmoving, Forestry, and Mining Machines. Note: SAE J1040, April 1988, or prior applicable standard In the case of machines made before 1988, should be listed on the machine ROPS certification plate.
  • FOPS shall be installed, tested and maintained in accordance with the Society of Automotive Engineers SAE J231, Jan. 1981, "Minimum Performance -Criteria for Falling Object Protective Structures (FOPS)." Note: SAE J231 should be listed on the certification plate.
  • ROPS and FOPS shall meet the requirements of the Society of Automotive Engineers SAE J397, April 1988, "Deflection Limiting Volume-ROPS/FOPS Laboratory Evaluation." Note: SAE J397 should be listed on the certification plate.
Note: The machine owner must rely on the FOPS/ROPS certification plate placed on the machine by the manufacturer.
  • Guards shall be provided for exposed moving elements such as shafts, pulleys, belts, conveyors and gears. The guards must comply with 1910.266 (d)(3).
  • Mufflers provided by the manufacturer or their equivalent shall be in place whenever the machine is in operation.
  • Stability, boom reliability, and inspection procedures shall comply with 1910.266 (d)(6).
  • The operator shall determine that no personnel are endangered before starting or moving equipment. The equipment operator shall walk completely around the machine and assure that no obstacles or personnel are in the danger area before startup.
  • The skidder operator, loader operator and the operator of any other equipment shall maintain a distance of at least two tree lengths from other equipment and personnel so as not to create a hazard to employee safety.
  • Elevated equipment components (e.g. blades, booms, etc.) shall not be moved or held over personnel, or close to personnel.
  • Elevated loads shall not be moved or held over personnel, or close to personnel.
  • Riders or observers shall not be permitted on loads at any time.
  • Riders or observers are not permitted on machines unless seating and protection are provided; such protection must be equivalent to that provided to the operator.
  • There will be no gasoline or diesel fuel containers carried inside or attached to a skidder that is not installed by the manufacturer of standard equipment.
  • Where signal men are being used, the equipment operator shall operate the equipment only on signal from the designated signal man, and then only when the signal is distinct and clearly understood.
  • Equipment shall not be operated so as to place undue shock loads on wire rope.
  • When equipment is operated in the vicinity of electrical distribution lines, there shall be at least 10 feet (3m) of clearance between the lines and any part of the equipment or load. If the electrical transmission lines are rated 50kv or more, or if the rating is unknown, special precautions are necessary and the operator shall stop work and notify the foreman.
  • Equipment transported from one job location to another shall be transported on a vehicle of sufficient rated capacity, and shall be secured in such a manner as not to endanger personnel.
  • Load limits shall not exceed the stated capacity of pallets and trailers.
  • Towed equipment, such as skid pans, pallets, arches and trailers shall be attached to the vehicle in a manner which will allow a full 90-degree turn; prevent overturning of the towing vehicle; and assure the operator is always in control of the towed equipment. The load should not contact the rear tire or the rear of a track assembly.
  • The vehicle and load shall be operated with safe clearance from all obstructions. An approved, charged fire extinguisher shall be kept on each vehicle and machine.
  • An approved first aid kit shall be kept in each vehicle and piece of mechanical equipment.
  • A stuck or inoperative vehicle shall be towed.
  • A loaded pallet shall not be pushed.
VEHICLES

A "vehicle" is defined by OSHA as a car, bus, truck, trailer, or semitrailer that is used for transportation of employees or movement of material.
  • The employer shall assure that each vehicle used to transport any employee off public roads or to perform any logging operation is maintained in serviceable condition.
  • The employer shall assure each vehicle used to transport any employee off public roads or to perform any logging operation is inspected before initial use and during each work shift. Defects or damage shall be repaired or the unserviceable vehicle shall be replaced before work is commenced.
  • The employer shall assure that the operating and maintenance instructions are available in each vehicle. Each vehicle operator and maintenance employee shall comply with the operating and maintenance instructions.
  • The employer shall assure that each vehicle operator has a valid operator's license for the class of vehicle being operated.
  • Mounting steps and handholds shall be provided for each vehicle wherever it is necessary to prevent an employee from being injured when entering or leaving the vehicle.
  • The seats of each vehicle shall be securely fastened.
Note: The provisions in these rules which apply to machines also apply to vehicles to transport any employee off public roads or to perform any logging operation, including any vehicle provided by an employee.
  • The rated capacity of any vehicle shall not be exceeded.
  • Before starting or moving any vehicle, the operator shall determine that no employee is in the path of any vehicle.
  • The vehicle shall be operated at such a distance from employees and other machines (and vehicles) such that operation will not create a hazard for an employee.
  • Before any vehicle is left unattended, the vehicle brake locks or parking brakes shall be applied. Each moving element, such as but not limited to blades, buckets and shears, shall be grounded.
  • The vehicle shall be loaded, secured and unloaded so that it will not create a hazard for any employee.
  • Each vehicle shall be equipped with a park brake braking system which shall be effective in maintaining parking performance, regardless of the direction of travel or whether the engine is running.
FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS
  • Flammable and combustible liquids shall be stored, handled, transported, and used in accordance with the requirements of Subpart H of 29 CFR Part 1910.
Note: Subpart H details size and specifications of fuel containers ranging from those used to carry chain saw fuel to the felling site to portable tanks for diesel fuel for logging equipment. These requirements are the same that have been in force for many years. Refer to 29 CFR 1910.106(2).
  • Flammable and combustible liquids shall not be transported in the driver compartment or in any passenger-occupied area of a machine or vehicle.
HAND TOOLS
  • The employer shall assure that each hand portable powered tool, including any tool provided by an employee, is maintained in serviceable condition.
  • The employer shall assure that each tool, including any tool provided by an employee, is inspected before initial use during each work shift. At a minimum, the inspection shall include the following:
    • Handles and guards, to assure that they are that they are sound, tight fitting, properly shaped, free of splinters and sharp edges, and in place.
    • Controls – to assure proper function.
    • Chain-saw chains – to assure proper adjustment;
    • Chain-saw mufflers – to assure that they are operational and in place.
    • Chain brakes and nose shielding devices – to assure that they are in place and function properly.
    • Heads of shock, impact-driven and driving tools – to assure that there is no mushrooming.
    • Cutting edges – to assure that they are sharp and properly shaped.
    • All other safety devices – to assure that they are in place and functioning properly.
  • The employer shall assure that each tool is used only for purposes for which it has been designed.
  • When the head of any shock, impact-driven or driving tool begins to chip, it shall be repaired or removed from service.
  • The cutting edge of each tool shall be sharpened in accordance with manufacturer's specifications whenever it becomes dull during the work shift.
  • Racks, boxes, holsters, or other means shall be provided, arranged and used for the transportation of tools so that a hazard is not created for any vehicle operator or passenger.
  • Hand Tools shall be sheathed or boxed if transported in a vehicle with personnel. If not contained in a box, the sheathed tools shall be fastened to the vehicle.
  • Proper storage facilities shall be provided for hand tools. Tools shall be stored in the provided location at all times when not in use.
  • Periodic inspections shall be made to assure all tools are serviceable and others removed from use.
  • Explosives and blasting agents shall be stored, handled, transported, and used in accordance with the requirements of Subpart H of 29 CFR Part 1910.
  • Only a designated person shall handle or use explosives and blasting agents.
  • Explosives and blasting agents shall not be transported in the driver compartment or in any passenger-occupied area of a machine or vehicle.
CHAIN SAW OPERATIONS AND SAFETY

Personal protective clothing, including gloves, ballistic pads or chaps or other approved chain saw leg protection, steel-toed boots with chain saw cut-resistant protection, hard hat, hearing protection and eye protection must be worn at all times when operating any chain saw.

CHAIN SAWS

Every chain saw placed into initial service shall be equipped with a chain brake and shall otherwise meet the requirements of the ANSI B175-1.1991 "Safety Requirements for Gasoline-Powered Chain Saws". Each chain saw placed into service before February 9, 1995, shall be equipped with a protective device that minimizes chain saw kickback. No chain saw kickback device shall be removed or otherwise disabled.
  • Removing or disabling anti-kickback devices is prohibited.
  • Each gasoline-powered chain saw shall be equipped with a continuous pressure throttle control system which will stop the chain when pressure on the throttle is released.
  • The chain saw shall be operated and adjusted in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
  • The chain saw shall be fueled at least 10 feet (6 m) from any open flame or other source of ignition.
  • The chain saw shall be started at least 10 feet (3 m) from the fueling area.
  • The chain saw shall be started on the ground or where otherwise firmly supported.
  • The chain saw shall be started with the chain brake engaged.
Note: The chain saw starting rules have been interpreted to permit starting a chain saw with the rear handle firmly gripped between the legs, the front handle firmly gripped with the arm straight and locked at the elbow, and the chain brake engaged.
  • The chain saw shall be held with the thumbs and fingers of both hands encircling the handles during operation.
  • The chain saw operator shall be certain of footing before starting to cut. The chain saw shall not be used in a position or at a distance that could cause the operator to become off-balance, to have insecure footing, or to relinquish a firm grip on the saw.
  • Prior to felling any tree, the chain saw operator shall clear away brush or other potential obstacles which might interfere with cutting the tree or using the retreat path.
  • The chain saw shall not be used to cut directly overhead.
  • The chain saw shall be carried in a manner that will prevent operator contact with the cutting chain and muffler.
  • The chain saw shall be shut down or the chain brake shall be engaged whenever a saw is carried farther than 50 feet (15.2 m). The chain saw shall be shut down or the chain brake shall be engaged when a saw is carried less than 50 feet if conditions such as, but not limited to, the terrain, underbrush and slippery surfaces may create a hazard for an employee. Note: Many Professional Logging Trainers require that the chain brake be engaged anytime a logger takes two (2) or more steps.
  • The chain saw operator shall make frequent inspections (more than once per day) to ensure that:
    • Chain saw handles and guards are in place and tight. This includes having an operational chain brake.
    • All chain saw controls function properly. This includes having saw equipped with a safety throttle which shuts off power after pressure on the throttle is released.
    • The cutting chain is properly adjusted, and that the saw chain will not continue to be driven after the throttle is released.
    • The muffler is operative (and equipped with a spark arrester).
    • Chain brakes and all other manufacturers' safety features remain operational.
    • Chain saws without all safety devices operational or in need of repair or parts or otherwise not safe for use shall immediately be tagged out and marked "out of service".
    • Manufacturer's instructions for operation and adjustment shall be followed and worker training must include specific details in the chain saw operator's manual.
    • Fuel for Chain saws shall not be used for starting fires or as a cleaning solvent.
    • Fellers shall have felling aids, including a felling lever and wedges.
TREE HARVESTING – FELLING OPERATIONS 1910.266 (G)(1)
  • Each employee in the immediate work area in the forest shall work in a position or location that is within visual or audible contact with another employee. Motor noise is not an acceptable signal.
  • Employees shall be spaced and duties organized such that the activity of one employee will not create hazards for other personnel.
  • Work areas shall be assigned so that a tree cannot fall into an adjacent occupied work area. The distance between adjacent occupied work areas shall be at least two (2) tree lengths of the trees being felled. The distance between adjacent occupied work areas shall reflect the degree of slope, the density of the growth, the height of the soil structure, and other hazards reasonably anticipated at that work site. A distance of greater than two tree lengths shall be maintained between adjacent occupied work areas on any slope where rolling or sliding of trees or logs is reasonably foreseeable.
  • While manual felling is in progress, no yarding machine shall be operated within two tree lengths of trees being manually felled.
Note: OSHA defines "yarding" as the movement of logs from the place where they are felled to a landing; synonymous with "skidding and prehauling.

Note: Two tree-lengths is considered equivalent to twice total tree height.
  • No employee shall approach a feller closer than two tree lengths of trees being felled until the feller has acknowledged that it is safe to do so, unless the employer demonstrates that a team of employees is necessary to manually fell a particular tree.
  • Logging operations near overhead electric lines shall be done in accordance with the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.333(c)(3).
Note: The text of 29 CFR 1910333(c)(3) provides guidance for operations near overhead electrical lines. The requirements are highly technical, and we recommend consultation with the power company prior to initiating operations within 20 feet or prior to transporting equipment which will have a clearance of less than 20 feet from a line.

Note: Contact with Power Line: The employer shall notify the power company immediately if a felled tree makes contact with any power line. Each employee shall remain clear of the area until the power company advises that there are no electrical hazards.
  • Trees shall not be felled in a manner which will endanger any person or strike any rope, cable, line (including power lines) or equipment.
  • The immediate supervisor shall be consulted when conditions appear unusually hazardous so as to require his decision before commencing the cut.
  • All work shall terminate and employees shall move to a place of safety during electrical storms, periods of high winds or other weather conditions which are dangerous to personnel. Each foreman shall be in possession of a device to measure wind velocity. Any employee who questions whether the environmental conditions are otherwise hazardous so as to warrant stopping work, shall stop work immediately and consult with the foreman or safety director before resuming work.
  • Employees shall remain clear of any mechanical felling operation.
  • All employees shall be accounted for at the end of each work shift.
  • Each tree shall be checked for accumulations of snow and ice.
  • Accumulation of snow and ice that may create a hazard for an employee shall be removed before felling is commenced in the area, or the area shall be avoided.
Note: "Danger tree" is defined by OSHA as "a standing tree that presents a hazard to employees due to conditions such as, but not limited to, deterioration or physical damage to the root system, trunk, stem or limbs, and the direction and lean of the tree." Set back trees – and sound trees which by reason of heavy lean are hazardous to fell manually – are easily within the definition of "danger tree", along with snags and lodged trees.
  • Each danger tree shall be felled, removed or avoided. Each danger tree, including lodged trees and snags, shall be felled or removed using mechanical or other techniques that minimize employee exposure before work is commenced in the area of the danger tree. If the danger tree is not felled or removed, it shall be marked and no work shall be conducted within two tree lengths of the danger tree unless the employer demonstrates that a shorter distance will not create a hazard for an employee.
  • Each danger tree shall be carefully checked for signs of loose bark, broken branches and limbs or other damage before they are felled or removed. Accessible loose bark and other damage that may create a hazard for an employee shall be removed or held in place before felling or removing the tree.
  • Felling on any slope where rolling or sliding of trees or logs is reasonably foreseeable shall be done uphill from, or on the same level as, previously felled trees.
  • Domino felling of trees, including danger trees, is prohibited. Note: "Domino felling" is defined by OSHA as the partial cutting of multiple trees which are left standing and then pushed over with a pusher tree.
  • Before felling is started, the feller shall plan and clear a retreat path. The retreat path shall extend diagonally away from the expected felling line unless the employer demonstrates that such a retreat path poses a greater hazard than an alternative retreat path. The feller shall use the retreat path.
Reminder: Before each tree is felled, conditions such as, but not limited to, snow and ice accumulation, the wind, the lean of tree, dead limbs, and the location of other trees shall be evaluated by the feller and precautions taken so a hazard is not created for an employee.
  • Other hazards not specified include snags, butt defects, tying vines, and dead tops.
  • Lodged trees shall be pulled to the ground at first opportunity with mechanical equipment or animal. If such a tree is left unattended, it shall be flagged or marked.
  • Snags, dead limbs, the lean of tree to be cut, wind conditions, locations of trees and other hazards shall be appraised and proper precautions taken before a cut is started. When in doubt, an employee shall resolve the doubt in favor of the safest course of conduct.
  • The owner/operator shall cruise each Cutting area and flag danger trees including dead, broken or rotted limbs or trees that are a hazard and must be removed before cutting operations begin. All such danger trees shall be felled or otherwise removed before logging operations begin within two tree lengths of the flagged tree. No employee shall work within two tree lengths of any tree which he believes to be hazardous even if that tree has not been flagged by the owner/operator. Such danger trees shall be immediately flagged by the employee and brought to the attention of the owner/operator.
  • Dead, broken, or rotted limbs or danger trees that are a hazard (widow makers) shall be felled or otherwise removed before commencing logging operations, building roads, trails or landing in their vicinity.
NOTCHING

An undercut shall be made in each tree being felled unless the employer demonstrates that felling the particular tree without an undercut will not create a hazard for an employee. The undercut shall be of a size so the tree will not split and will fall in the intended direction.

Note: Undercuts are also called notches, snipes, or face cuts. An undercut consists of two cuts, an upper and a lower one. It has been recommended that (1) these two cuts meet exactly in the wood to avoid bypass or weakening the hinge; (2) the angle between the two cuts be at least seventy degrees, to control the fall of the tree most of the way to the ground; (3) the depth of the undercut be between one quarter and one third of the diameter of the tree; (4) the feller use the sight line on the body of the saw to aim his undercut in the intended direction of fall and the apex of the undercut should be perpendicular to the intended direction of the fall.

Note: For best results, it has been recommended that the upper cut of the undercut be made first. The feller can then sight down through this cut and, when making the lower undercut, see the saw chain as it joins the upper cut, thereby making the two undercuts meet exactly.

Note: If maintaining the quality of the butt of the tree is necessary, the upper cut of the undercut may be made level and the lower cut angled upwards to meet it (i.e., Humboldt cut).

Note: The responsibility for not using an undercut on a specific tree is placed on the employer. In our experience, an undercut should be used on trees which are too large or heavy to push manually in the direction of fall.

A back cut shall be made in each tree being felled. The back cut shall allow for sufficient hinge wood to guide the tree and prevent it from prematurely slipping or twisting off the stump.

The back cut shall be above the level of the horizontal cut of the undercut in conventional and Humboldt cutting. In open face felling the back cut shall be level and at or above the meeting point of the two cuts in the notch.

Exception: The back cut may be at or below the horizontal cut in tree pulling operations.

Note: When pulling a tree (winching it), making a back cut lower than the apex of the undercuts serves to prevent the butt from kicking out and allowing the tree to fall away from the direction in which it is being winched.
  • THE DUTCH CUT NOTCH IS PROHIBITED.
Reminder: Undercuts are required and shall be of a size to guide the tree to fall in the intended direction AND to minimize the possibility of splitting. Backcuts are required and shall provide sufficient hinge wood to guide the tree AND prevent it from prematurely slipping or twisting off the stump.
  • The hinge shall be preserved and shall not be cut through during felling.
  • The following notches are acceptable, but shall be made as follows:
    • Conventional: A 45-degree angle cut and a straight cut at least one third depth of the tree or approximately 80% of the diameter of the tree being cut, and the back cut shall be level and above the horizontal cut in the notch.
    • Open Face: The notch shall be approximately 90%, but not less than 70%, and the back cut shall be level and at or above the meeting point of the two cuts in the notch.
    • Humboldt: Bottom cut slants up at 45% angle toward the back of the tree, back cut shall be level and above the horizontal cut in the notch.
      • The cutter shall be able to identify the kind of notch being used and shall be able to describe the holding wood or hinge being used.
      • Improper notching shall result in immediate, on the spot, discipline in accordance with the safety and health program and shall be documented in the employee's personnel file thereafter for a period of one (1) year.
LIMBING AND BUCKING
  • Bucking and limbing on any slope where rolling or sliding of trees or logs is reasonably foreseeable shall be done on the uphill side of each tree.
  • Before limbing or bucking wind thrown trees, precautions shall be taken to prevent the root wad, butt or logs from striking an employee. These precautions include, but are not limited to, chocking or moving the tree to a stable position.
  • Start limbing from the butt end of the tree and work toward the top.
  • Walking on trees while limbing is prohibited.
  • When a spring pole or other tree under stress is cut, no employee other than the feller shall be closer than two tree lengths when the stress is released. Tension shall be released gradually. If tension cannot be released gradually, and when the employee is in the clear, the tension must be released by mechanical means.
  • Cut the last supporting limbs with extreme caution, as the tree may roll. When cutting large limbs, be alert for the chain binding and kicking back.
  • Exercise caution while limbing with the top of chain as kickbacks may result.
  • Trees yarded for bucking shall be safely located and placed in an orderly (parallel) manner so they are stable when worked on.
YARDING

Note: In common logging terminology, "yarding" is a term used in the West. For OSHA purposes, "skidding" and "prehauling" are synonyms with the term "yarding."
  • No log shall be moved until each employee is in the clear.
  • Each choker shall be hooked and unhooked from the uphill side or end of the log, unless the employer demonstrates that it is not feasible in the particular situation to hook or unhook the choker from the uphill side.
  • Each choker shall be positioned near the end of the log or tree length.
  • Each machine shall be positioned during winching so the machine and winch are operated within their design limits.
  • No yarding line shall be moved unless the yarder operator has clearly received and understood the signal to do so. When in doubt, the yarder operator shall repeat the signal as it is understood and wait for a confirming signal before moving any line.
  • No load shall exceed the rated capacity of the pallet, trailer, or other carrier.
  • Towed equipment, such as, but not limited to, skid pans, pallets, arches, and trailers shall be attached to each machine or vehicle in such a manner as to allow a full 90-degree turn; to prevent overrunning of the towing machine or vehicle; and to assure that the operator is always in control of the towed equipment.
  • The yarding machine or vehicle, including its load, shall be operated with safe clearance from all obstructions.
  • Each yarded tree shall be placed in a location that does not create a hazard for an employee and an orderly manner so that the trees are stable before bucking or limbing is commenced.
WOOD YARD SAFETY
  • The transport vehicle shall be positioned to provide working clearance between the vehicle and the deck.
  • Only the loading or unloading machine operator and other personnel the employer demonstrates are essential shall be in the work area during loading and unloading.
  • No transport vehicle operator shall remain in the cab during loading and unloading if the logs are carried or moved over the truck cab, unless the employer demonstrates that it is necessary for the operator to do so. Where the transport vehicle operator remains in the cab, the employer shall provide operator protection, such as, but not limited to, reinforcement of the cab.
  • Each log shall be placed on a transport vehicle in an orderly manner and tightly secured.
  • The load shall be positioned to prevent slippage or loss during handling and transport.
  • Each stake and chock which is used to trip loads shall be so constructed that the tripping mechanism is activated on the side opposite the release of the load.
  • Each tie down shall be left in place over the peak log to secure all logs until the loading lines or other protection the employer demonstrates is equivalent has been put in place. A stake of sufficient strength to withstand the forces of shifting or moving logs shall be considered equivalent protection provided that the logs are not loaded higher than the stake. Note: The standard applies to in-woods unloading. Safe unloading practices at sawmills and pulp mills are detailed in other OSHA standards.
  • Each tie down shall be released only from the side on which the unloading machine operates, except as follows:
    1. When the tie down is released by a remote control device, and
    2. When the employee making the release is protected by racks, stanchions or other protection which the employer demonstrates is capable of withstanding the force of the logs.
  • Transport – The transport vehicle operator shall assure that each tie down is tight before transporting the load. While en route, the operator shall check and tighten the tie downs whenever there is reason to believe that the tie downs have loosened or the load has shifted.
  • Storage – Each deck shall be constructed and located so it is stable and provides each employee with enough room to safely move and work in the area.
  • There shall be at least two safety chains (binders) in place to bind tree length loads while being transported to the wood yards.
  • Upon arrival at that yard, the safety chains (binders) shall not be released by the driver until the truck carrying the tree-length pulpwood is in position so that the clamp from the unloading equipment holds the tree-length and/or four-foot pulpwood in place. Chains, cables and load binders on trucks carrying four-foot pulpwood shall not be released until the truck has left the scales and is in the wood yard.
  • The rear safety chain (binder) shall be released first.
  • No vehicle will be unloaded unless the driver has dismounted from the loaded vehicle and is at least two tree-lengths away.
  • Drivers of vehicles being unloaded must stand at least two tree-lengths away and remain in view of the unloader operator.
  • There shall be no riders in the crane.
  • Riders in incoming trucks shall remain at the scale house and not go to the unloading area.
  • The truck driver is responsible for any movement of his truck while it is being loaded or unloaded. Brakes must be set and the engine shut off prior to loading and unloading.
  • No log shall be moved until each employee is in the clear and at least two tree-lengths away.
  • Spar trees shall be carefully examined for defects before being rigged.
  • Yarding lines shall not be moved unless the signal to do so is clearly understood. When in doubt, the yarder operator shall repeat the signal as understood and receive a confirming signal before moving any line.
  • Unstable trees and spars shall be guyed to ensure stability. Logging equipment not specifically designed for guyless operation shall be guyed to ensure stability.
  • Guylines shall be arranged so that stresses will be placed on not less than two guylines.
  • Stumps used for anchoring guylines shall be carefully chosen as to both position and strength.
  • Guylines shall be tied back if necessary. Standing trees shall not be used to tie back guylines.
SKIDDER OPERATION
  • The skidder operator shall maintain a distance of at least two tree-lengths from other equipment or personnel when skidding, winching or otherwise operating the skidder so as not to create a hazard to employee safety.
  • The skidder operator shall inspect cables and chokers before commencing work and at least twice per day thereafter. Cables or chokers which have broken strands or cuts sufficient to materially increase the risk of failure shall be replaced at the earliest opportunity.
  • The skidder operator shall apply all brakes and locks and lower the blade before dismounting.
  • When the skidder operator is shutting off the machine before dismounting, the skidder operator shall apply brakes and locks and lower the blade.
  • The skidder blade shall be raised high when traveling.
  • The skidder operator shall discharge all pneumatic, hydraulic or other pressurized system before dismounting.
  • Only designated, trained operators shall operate machines.
  • Workers shall hook and unhook chokers from the uphill side or end of the log where feasible, unless the log is securely blocked to prevent rolling or swinging.
  • Chokers shall be positioned near the end of the log or tree length.
  • Equipment shall be positioned during winching so that the winch line is as near in alignment as possible with the long axis of the machine, unless the machine is designed to be used under other conditions of alignment.
  • No logs shall be moved until each employee is in the clear and at least two tree-lengths away.
  • Skidder and machine operators shall not approach to within two tree-lengths of the trees being felled until the feller has acknowledged the approach.
  • The operator shall keep an approved fire extinguisher on the skidder at all times. It shall be kept clean, secure and active at all times.
  • Absolutely no riders shall be allowed by the skidder operator. A skidder is a one-man machine.
  • Keep hands, feet and clothing at a safe distance from moving parts. Do not work around moving parts with loose fitting clothing. All manufacturers' guards shall remain in place.
  • All moving parts which are required to be guarded by OSHA Regulations shall be guarded.
  • To alleviate slips and falls, the operator shall keep steps and all walking and work surfaces free from oil, mud, grease, snow, ice or other debris.
  • Skidder trails shall be kept free from spring poles, spears, jill pokes, lodged trees, stubs and downed wood at all times.
  • Skidder operators shall not operate their equipment within 300 feet of the discharge side of felling saw heads on operating mechanical feller-bunchers
  • Skidder operators shall not begin winching until all personnel are at least two tree-lengths from the twitch.
  • All chain saws transported on skidders shall be sheathed.
  • The skidder operator shall operate the skidder only from the operator's station.
  • Maintenance or repair of a skidder shall be performed in accordance with the lock out/tag out procedures established by the company.
  • The operator shall securely fasten and protect all tools and material on the skidder.
  • The operator shall start and operate the winch only from the operator's station.
  • Skidders may be operated only by employees whose duties call for it, or who are otherwise specifically authorized by their supervisor to do so.
  • All work rules set forth entitled "Machines" shall be followed during skidder operations.
MECHANICAL FELLING & DELIMBING
  • The operator shall keep an approved fire extinguisher on the machine at all times. It should be kept clean, secure and active.
  • Absolutely no riders shall be allowed by the operator.
  • The operator shall apply all brakes, locks, ground or return the boom or arm to its cradle, and shut down the engine before dismounting.
  • Keep hands, feet and clothing clear of all moving parts. Do not work around moving parts with loose clothing. All manufacturers' guards shall remain in place. All moving parts which are required to be guarded by OSHA Regulations shall be guarded.
  • The boom or arm shall never traverse over people or other equipment.
  • All controls shall be checked at the start of each day to be sure of proper operation.
  • Never move the machine in any direction you cannot clearly see. Assure yourself that all personnel are clear of the area and at least two tree-lengths away before you move the machine.
  • The operator shall keep the cab, engine compartments and other work and walking surfaces clean of oil, grease, trash and flammable materials and other debris.
  • Before making adjustments the operator must make sure all moving parts are resting on the ground or are securely blocked up to prevent falling resulting in injury to the operator or damage to the machine.
  • Maintenance or repair of a feller buncher or delimber shall be performed in accordance with the lock out/tag out procedures established by the company.
  • Guarding shall be provided to protect employees from flying wood chunks, logs, chips, bark, limbs and other material. Guarding shall also be provided to prevent unintended contact with moving machine parts, such as rotating shafts, belts and wheels.
  • The operator shall discharge all pneumatic, hydraulic, or other pressurized systems before dismounting. NOTE: If a hydraulic or pneumatic storage device can move the moving elements such as, but not limited to, blades, buckets, saws and shears, after the machine is shut down, the pressure or stored energy from the element shall be discharged as specified by the manufacturer.
  • The operator shall determine that no people or equipment are within the striking distance of the tree being felled or the strike distance of the tree or parts thereof being delimbed before beginning felling or delimbing operations. This distance is assumed to be at least two tree-lengths of the tree being felled or delimbed.
  • All work rules set forth in the section entitled "Machines" shall be followed during mechanical felling and delimbing operations.
  • All drivers shall have a valid license for the class of vehicle being operated.
  • Flammable liquids shall not be transported in driver compartments nor in occupied passenger compartments of personnel carriers.
  • Seats shall be securely fastened.
  • A seat belt shall be provided for the operator.
ADDITIONAL GENERAL SAFETY RULES
  • All employees must observe speed limits, paying attention to changes in weather and road conditions. They must adjust speeds to accommodate changes in these conditions.
  • Employees assigned new or unfamiliar tasks shall undertake these new assignments only under the close supervision of a person who is experienced with the safe performance of the task. This supervision shall continue until it is determined that the employee is able to work in a safe manner. If an employee is uncertain of any aspect of a task, they shall ask for help from the supervisor or other qualified personnel.
  • Employees shall not smoke in the following situations:
    • In areas posted with No Smoking signs;
    • While fueling machinery or Chain saws;
    • While around any flammable liquids or compressed gases;
    • While boosting or charging batteries;
    • While using starting fluids or combustible aerosol containers.
  • In work situations where jewelry, such as rings, necklaces or earrings, may heighten the risk of injury, these items shall not be worn by employees.
  • When employees are approaching machinery working on roadway (such as delimbers, slashers, loaders, or graders), the following rules should be observed when attempting to pass through the work area:
    • Stop vehicle at least 200 feet away, and outside the strike area of the working machinery.
    • Be sure the machine operator is aware of your presence before attempting to pass through the work area; and
    • Be sure the machine operator has given a clear signal to pass before doing so.
  • Consumption of alcohol or controlled substances are strictly prohibited at any time at any job site or while operating company vehicles or equipment. No employee under the influence of alcohol or other non-prescription drugs shall be allowed on the job. Any employee using prescription or non-prescription drugs which are assigned warnings against the operation of equipment, or performing other hazardous tasks, shall not be allowed to work except in accordance with the warnings. Employees taking these kinds of medication shall report this to their foreman or immediate supervisor.
  • Only company employees and authorized personnel are allowed at work sites or at company logging camps.
  • All employees are required to conform to company policies, safety standards and work rules.
  • All employees shall be subject to disciplinary action by the company for failure to comply with company policies, safety standards and work rules.
  • Approved, portable fire extinguishers shall be provided at locations where machines and vehicles are operated and/or on each vehicle.
  • Fuel shall be stored and dispensed in accordance with 29 CFR Part 1910, Subpart H.
SHARPENING OF DELIMBER AND FELLER-BUNCHER SAW OR BLADES
  • The lock out/tag out procedure shall be followed. The cutting head shall be grounded if feasible.
  • If the saw or blade to be sharpened cannot be sharpened with this cutting head on the ground, the cutting head shall be chocked or otherwise supported so as to prevent the head from moving should the hydraulic system fail.

APPENDIX A

SAMPLE LOGGING CONTRACTOR'S
HAZARD COMMUNICATION PROGRAM

  1. GENERAL INFORMATION

    In order to comply with OSHA 1910.1200, Hazard Communication Standard the following written Hazard Communication Program has been established by the logging contractor.

    This program will be available to the employee in the vehicles operated by the logging contractor, foreman, and/or supervisor for review by any interested employee.
     
    1. Container Labeling: The logging contractor shall verify that all containers received for use are clearly labeled to indicate:
      • The identity of the contents. (The Identity must match the corresponding MSDS).
      • Appropriate hazard warnings. (Including routes of entry and target organs if known).
      • The name and address of the manufacturer, importer, or responsible party.
      The logging contractor shall ensure that all secondary containers are labeled with either an extra copy of the original manufacturer's label or with the "central stores" generic labels which are a block for identity and blocks for the hazard warning.

      The logging contractor will review the labeling system every cutting season and update as necessary.
       
    2. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
      • The logging contractor shall be responsible for obtaining and maintaining the data sheet system.
      • When toxic or hazardous substances are received without an MSDS, a letter, with a copy to file, will be sent to the supplier requesting the MSDS.
      • No employee shall use a chemical until the company has received its MSDS.
      • The logging contractor shall review incoming data sheets for new and significant health/safety information. The logging contractor shall return to the supplier or revise any MSDS which he knows to be inadequate.
      • The logging contractor shall see that any new information is passed on to the affected employees.
      • Copies of MSDSs for all toxic and hazardous substances to which employees will be exposed shall be kept in the camp office and the vehicle(s) operated by the logging contractor, foreman and supervisor.
         
    3. Employee Training and Information
      • The logging contractor is responsible for the employee training program. The logging contractor shall ensure that all elements specified below are carried out.
      • Each new employee shall attend a health and safety orientation and shall receive information and training on the following:
      • An overview of the requirements contained in the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard, 29 CFR 1910.1200.
      • Hazardous chemicals present in their workplace operations.
      • Location and availability of our written hazard program.
      • Specific physical and health effects of the toxic or hazardous substances.
      • Methods and observation techniques used to determine the presence or release of toxic and hazardous substances in the work area.
      • How to use toxic and hazardous substances in the safest possible manner, including safe work practices and personal protective equipment requirements.
      • Steps the company has taken to lessen or prevent exposure to toxic and hazardous substances.
      • How to read labels and review MSDSs to obtain appropriate hazard information.
      • Emergency procedures.
      • Location of MSDS file and location of toxic and hazardous substances list.
      There shall be an opportunity for interactive questions and answers between employees and the person conducting the training.

      After attending the training class, each employee shall sign a form to verify attending the training, receiving our written materials, and understanding this company's policies on Hazard Communication.

      Prior to a new chemical hazard being introduced into the work place of this company, each affected employee shall be given information as outlined above. The logging contractor is responsible for ensuring that the MSDS on the new chemicals are available.
       
  2. LIST OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS:

    The following is a list of all known and hazardous substances used by employees or present at the workplace. Further information on each noted substance can be obtained by reviewing Material Safety Data Sheets located in the camp office and the vehicle(s) operated by the foremen and logging contractor. The logging contractor shall review the chemical list and update it quarterly.

    Toxic or Hazardous Chemicals

    Trade Name Substances MSDS Number of I.D.

    (LIST ALL SUBSTANCES YOU HAVE THAT HAVE OR REQUIRE AN MSDS)

  3. HAZARDOUS NON-ROUTINE TASKS

    Periodically, employees are required to perform hazardous non-routine tasks. Prior to starting work on such projects, each affected employee shall be given information by the logging contractor about hazardous chemicals to which they may be exposed during such activity.

    The information will include:
    • Specific hazards
    • Protective/safety measures the employee can take
    • Measures the company has taken to lessen the hazard including ventilation, respirators, presence of another employee "Buddy system," and emergency procedures
       
  4. INFORMING CONTRACTORS

    It is the responsibility of the logging contractor to provide outside contractors (with employees) the following information:
    • Toxic and hazardous substances to which they may be exposed while on the job site
    • Precautions the employees may take to lessen the possibility of exposure by usage of appropriate protective measures
       
    The logging contractor shall be responsible for contacting each outside contractor before work is started to gather and disseminate any information concerning chemical hazards that the outside contractor is bringing to the workplace.

    The following list identifies some types of potentially hazardous chemicals that may be present in the workplace:

    (The logging contractor shall publish this list and include it here before the logging contractor begins logging operations.)


LOGGING CONTRACTOR'S
LIST OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS AND INDEX MSDSs


Hazardous Chemicals Operation/Area Used (Optional) MSDSs on File

APPENDIX B

LOCK OUT/TAG OUT PROCEDURE

FOR: SKIDDER

FELLER BUNCHER

DELIMBER


LOCK OUT/TAG OUT PROCEDURE FOR SKIDDERS

INTRODUCTION: You, the operator, or a mechanic, may periodically perform maintenance or repairs on your skidder. While work is in progress, the skidder shall be shut down. All power sources must be turned off and, if possible, severed in order to eliminate the possibility that the skidder will be restarted by someone else or accidentally by yourself, while you or someone else is working on it.

PURPOSE: This lock out/tag out procedure establishes the minimum requirements. It shall be used to isolate the skidder from all potentially hazardous energy, and to ensure that the machine is "locked out or tagged out" before anyone performs service or maintenance on it.

RESPONSIBILITY: You, as well as all other employees, shall comply with this lock out/tag out procedure. Only authorized employees (the owner of the skidder, equipment or machine, or an authorized mechanic) are authorized to perform lock out/tag out in accordance with this procedure.
  • No employee shall attempt to start, energize or otherwise use a skidder, or any other machine or equipment which has been locked out/tagged out. Any employee who uses or attempts to use a machine or equipment which has been locked out/tagged out shall be terminated.
  • You shall be instructed in lock out/tag out procedures for the skidder, as well as for machines and equipment which you either operate or upon which you are required to perform maintenance. Neither maintenance nor repairs shall be performed on the skidder or on any machine or equipment that is running.
SEQUENCE OF LOCK OUT/TAG OUT PROCEDURES: The following steps shall be performed in the sequence listed when the skidder is to be either locked-out or tagged-out, and each step must be performed by the authorized person performing the lock-out/tag out.
  1. Notify all employees who may be potentially affected by the repair or maintenance of the skidder that the skidder shall be shut down and locked out in order to perform the maintenance or repairs.

  2. Ground the blade.

  3. Set the parking brake.

  4. Manipulate the hand and foot controls to dissipate residual energy which may be present in the hydraulic lines.

  5. Determine the type and magnitude of the energy that the machine or equipment utilizes. (For example, the skidder has both motorized power and hydraulic power).

  6. Identify and locate all devices which isolate energy (e.g., switches, valves, etc.) to the skidder, machine or equipment.

  7. Shut down the skidder by following normal operating procedures by turning off the fuel shut off switch.

  8. Remove the ignition key, if any, and keep it on your person.

  9. Disconnect the battery cables.

  10. Turn off the concealed main fuel master cut-off located under the floor board.

  11. Lock out and/or tag out (place a lock and/or tag) on each energy isolating device, that is, on the positive battery cable, the ignition switch, if any, the fuel shut-off switch and the master shut-off switch, and the hydraulic controls.

  12. The authorized person performing the lock out/tag out shall determine that no personnel are exposed and, after having done so, shall attempt to restart the skidder by following normal operating procedures in order to make certain that it will not operate. After verifying that all energy sources have been isolated, the authorized person shall return all controls to the neutral or "off" position.

  13. The skidder is now locked out or tagged out.
RESTORING MACHINES OR EQUIPMENT TO SERVICE: The skidder shall be returned to service and the lock out/tag out mechanisms removed only by the same authorized person who placed the lock out/tag out mechanisms. The following steps shall be taken in the order listed:
  1. The authorized person who performed the lock out/tag out procedure shall check the area around the skidder to ensure that no one is exposed to any hazard which would be created by reactivating the energy sources to the skidder and restarting it.

  2. The authorized person who performed the lock out/tag out of the skidder shall check it to ensure that all components are operationally intact and that non-essential tools and other items have been removed.

  3. The authorized person who performed the lock out/tag out of the skidder shall ensure that all guards have been reinstalled to their proper place.

  4. The authorized person who performed the lock out/tag out of the skidder shall verify that all controls are in the neutral or "off" position.

  5. The authorized person who performed the lock out/tag out of the skidder shall remove the lock out device(s) and/or tag(s) and re-energize the skidder by reconnecting the battery and turning on the ignition switch, if any, and the fuel switches.

  6. The skidder is now ready to restart and can be restarted. After completing all of the above-listed procedures, the authorized person who placed and removed the lock out/tag out devices shall notify affected employees that the maintenance or repair of the skidder has been completed and that it is ready for use.
LOCK OUT/TAG OUT PROCEDURE FOR THE FELLER BUNCHER

INTRODUCTION: You, the operator, or a mechanic, may periodically perform maintenance or repairs on your feller buncher. While work is in progress, the feller buncher shall be shut down. All power sources must be turned off and, if possible, severed in order to eliminate the possibility that the feller buncher will be restarted by someone else or accidentally by yourself, while you or someone else is working on it.

PURPOSE: This lock out/tag out procedure establishes the minimum requirements. It shall be used to isolate the feller buncher from all potentially hazardous energy, and to ensure that the machine is "locked out or tagged out" before anyone performs service or maintenance on it.

RESPONSIBILITY: You, as well as all other employees, shall comply with this lock out/tag out procedure. Only authorized employees (the owner of the feller buncher, equipment or machine, or an authorized mechanic) are authorized to perform lock out/tag out in accordance with this procedure.

No employee shall attempt to start, energize or otherwise use the feller buncher, or any other machine or equipment which has been locked out/tagged out. Any employee who uses or attempts to use a machine or equipment which has been locked out/tagged out shall be terminated.

You shall be instructed in lock out/tag out procedures for the feller buncher, as well as for machines and equipment which you either operate or upon which you are required to perform maintenance. Neither maintenance nor repairs shall be performed on the feller buncher or on any machine or equipment that is running.

SEQUENCE OF LOCK OUT/TAG OUT PROCEDURES: The following steps shall be performed in the sequence listed when the feller buncher is to be either locked-out or tagged-out, and each step must be performed by the authorized person performing the lock-out/tag out:

  1. Notify all employees who may be potentially affected by the repair or maintenance of the feller buncher that the feller buncher shall be shut down and locked out in order to perform the maintenance or repairs.

  2. Ground the boom.

  3. Set the parking brake.

  4. Manipulate the hand and foot controls to dissipate residual energy which may be present with the hydraulic lines.

  5. Determine the type and magnitude of the energy that the machine or equipment utilizes. (For example, the feller buncher has both motorized power and hydraulic power).

  6. Identify and locate all devices which isolate energy (e.g., switches, valves, etc.) to the feller buncher, machine or equipment.

  7. Shut down the feller buncher by following normal operating procedures by turning off the on-off switch.

  8. Remove the ignition key, if any, and keep it on your person.

  9. Disconnect the battery cables.

  10. Turn off the concealed main fuel master cut-off located under the floor board.

  11. Place a chock around or adjacent to the cylinder rod to prevent the boom from moving. The boom may collapse if the hydraulic system fails even if the cutting head is grounded.

  12. Lock out and/or tag out (place a lock and/or tag) on each energy isolating device, that is, on the positive battery cable, the ignition switch, each fuel cut-off switch and the hydraulic controls.

  13. The authorized person performing the lock out/tag out shall determine that no personnel are exposed and, after having done so, shall attempt to restart the feller buncher by following normal operating procedures to make certain that it will not operate. After verifying that all energy sources have been isolated, the authorized person shall return all controls to the neutral or "off" position.

  14. Lock the door to the cab and keep the key on your person.

  15. The feller buncher is now locked out or tagged out.
RESTORING MACHINES OR EQUIPMENT TO SERVICE: The feller buncher shall be returned to service and the lock out/tag out mechanisms removed only by the same authorized person who placed the lock out/tag out mechanisms. The following steps shall be taken in the order listed:
  1. The authorized person who performed the lock out/tag out procedure shall check the area around the feller buncher to ensure that no one is exposed to any hazard which would be created by reactivating the energy sources to the feller buncher and restarting it.

  2. The authorized person who performed the lock out/tag out of the feller buncher shall check it to ensure that all components are operationally intact and that non-essential tools and other items have been removed.

  3. The authorized person who performed the lock out/tag out of the feller buncher shall ensure that all guards have been reinstalled to their proper place.

  4. The authorized person who performed the lock out/tag out of the feller buncher shall verify that all controls are in the neutral or "off" position.

  5. The authorized person who performed the lock out/tag out procedure shall remove the chock from the cylinder rod.

  6. The authorized person who performed the lock out/tag out of the feller buncher shall remove the lock out device(s) and/or tag(s)and re-energize the feller buncher by reconnecting the battery and turning on the fuel switches.

  7. The feller buncher is now ready to restart and can be restarted.
After completing all of the above-listed procedures, the authorized person who placed and removed the lock out/tag out devices shall notify affected employees that the maintenance or repair of the feller buncher has been completed and that it is ready for use.

LOCK OUT/TAG OUT PROCEDURE FOR THE DELIMBER

INTRODUCTION: You, the operator, or a mechanic, may periodically perform maintenance or repairs on your delimber. while work is in progress, the delimber shall be shut down. All power sources must be turned off and, if possible, severed in order to eliminate the possibility that the delimber will be restarted by someone else or accidentally by yourself, while you or someone else is working on it.

PURPOSE: This lock out/tag out procedure establishes the minimum requirements. It shall be used to isolate the delimber from all potentially hazardous energy, and to ensure that the machine is "locked out or tagged out" before anyone performs service or maintenance on it.

RESPONSIBILITY: You, as well as all other employees, shall comply with this lock out/tag out procedure. Only authorized employees (the owner of the delimber, equipment or machine, or an authorized mechanic) are authorized to perform lock out/tag out in accordance with this procedure.

No employee shall attempt to start, energize or otherwise use the delimber, or any other machine or equipment which has been locked out/tagged out. Any employee who uses or attempts to use a machine or equipment which has been locked out/tagged out shall be terminated.

You shall be instructed in lock out/tag out procedures for the delimber, as well as for machines and equipment which you either operate or upon which you are required to perform maintenance. Neither maintenance nor repairs shall be performed on the delimber or on any machine or equipment that is running.

SEQUENCE OF LOCK OUT/TAG OUT PROCEDURES: The following steps shall be performed in the sequence listed when the delimber is to be either locked-out or tagged-out, and each step must be performed by the authorized person performing the lock-out/tag out:

  1. Notify all employees who may be potentially affected by the repair or maintenance of the delimber that the delimber shall be shut down and locked out in order to perform the maintenance or repairs.

  2. Ground the boom.

  3. Set the parking brake.

  4. Manipulate the hand and foot controls to dissipate residual energy which may be present in the hydraulic lines.

  5. Determine the type and magnitude of the energy that the machine or equipment utilizes. (For example, the delimber has both motorized power and hydraulic power).

  6. Identify and locate all devices which isolate energy (e.g., switches, valves, etc.) to the delimber, machine or equipment.

  7. Shut down the delimber by following normal operating procedures by turning off the on-off switch.

  8. Remove the ignition key, if any, and keep it on your person.

  9. Disconnect the battery cables.

  10. Turn off the concealed main fuel master cut-off located under the floor board.

  11. Chain or otherwise secure the outer and inner booms together to prevent movement or creeping in the event that the hydraulic system should fail.

  12. Lock out and/or tag out (place a lock and/or tag) on each energy isolating device, that is, on the positive battery cable, the ignition switch, each fuel cut-off switch and the hydraulic controls.

  13. The authorized person performing the lock out/tag out shall determine that no personnel are exposed and, after having done so, shall attempt to restart the delimber by following normal operating procedures in order to make certain that it will not operate. After verifying that all energy sources have been isolated, the authorized person shall return all controls to the neutral or "off" position.

  14. Lock the door to the cab and keep the key on your person.

  15. The delimber is now locked out or tagged out.
RESTORING MACHINES OR EQUIPMENT TO SERVICE: The delimber shall be returned to service and the lock out/tag out mechanisms removed only by the same authorized person who placed the lock out/tag out mechanisms. The following steps shall be taken in the order listed:
  1. The authorized person who performed the lock out/tag out procedure shall check the area around the delimber to ensure that no one is exposed to any hazard which would be created by reactivating the energy sources to the delimber and restarting it.

  2. The authorized person who performed the lock out/tag out of the delimber shall check it to ensure that all components are operationally intact and that non-essential tools and other items have been removed.

  3. The authorized person who performed the lock out/tag out of the delimber shall ensure that all guards have been reinstalled to their proper place.

  4. The authorized person who performed the lock out/tag out of the delimber shall verify that all controls are in the neutral or "off" position.

  5. The authorized person who performed the lock out/tag out procedure shall remove the chain or other fastener securing the booms.

  6. The authorized person who performed the lock out/tag out of the delimber shall remove the lock out device(s) and/or tag(s) and re-energize the delimber by reconnecting the battery and turning on the fuel switches.

  7. The delimber is now ready to restart and can be restarted.
After completing all of the above-listed procedures, the authorized person who placed and removed the lock out/tag out devices shall notify affected employees that the maintenance or repair of the delimber has been completed and that it is ready for use.

APPENDIX C

LOGGING CONTRACTOR'S
SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM

SAFETY AWARENESS: Safety is a top priority. As a logging contractor (hereinafter variously referred to in either the first person or the "contractor" or the "company" or the owner/operator or employer), I believe a safety and health program will effectively eliminate or control work related hazards faced by myself and company employees. The success of this safety program hinges on clearly stated work rules, regularly scheduled and informative safety and training meetings, a thorough self-auditing program, and the assistance and cooperation of all employees. All employees must follow the standards and company work rules. A progressive disciplinary policy will be enforced as part of this program.

ADHERENCE TO THE SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM SHOULD MINIMIZE THE RISK OF INJURY.

RESPONSIBILITY FOR SAFETY: Everyone working in a wood harvesting operation is responsible for safety. Everyone must take the obligation seriously. Unsafe work practices, acts or conditions will not be tolerated. Safety is never to be compromised to production or product.
  • In order for a logging contractor to provide safe and healthful employment, everyone must:
    • comply with all federal, state and local laws and regulations;
    • use good judgment and safe practices on all jobs; and
    • comply with the company Safety and Health Program and Work Rules.
  • As a logging contractor, I am specifically responsible for:
    • fostering a work environment where safety and health are paramount;
    • ensuring that employees are afforded the training necessary to maintain a safe and healthful work site;
    • implementation of the company's safety and health program;
    • monitoring and requiring compliance with the company Safety and Health program, Work Rules and OSHA standards.
    • providing necessary personal protective equipment;
    • ensuring that supplies and equipment purchased by the company comply with safety standards;
    • ensuring that equipment provided by employees complies with OSHA safety standards and company safety standards and work rules; and
    • maintaining records of employee training and as required by OSHA.
A logging contractor and supervisors are specifically responsible for:
  • monitoring and requiring compliance with company Safety and Health Program, Work Rules and OSHA standards.
  • ensuring that proper safety equipment is available and used appropriately;
  • conducting job-site inspections, safety meetings, training and supervision, as needed, during work hours;
  • correcting hazards and unsafe practices;
  • obtaining medical attention for injured employees as quickly as possible, and initiating First Responder intervention and Emergency Evacuation Procedures, as appropriate.
Employees are specifically responsible for:
  • complying with all safety and health standards and regulations;
  • complying with all company work rules;
  • actively participating in safety and health training;
  • requesting assistance and supervision as needed;
  • using and maintaining all owned equipment in accordance with OSHA safety standards, company safety standards and company work rules;
  • using and maintaining personal protective equipment;
  • reporting all observed unsafe acts, practices or conditions; and
  • correcting unsafe acts, practices or conditions within their immediate work area.
Safety and Health Consultants and Insurance Safety Advisor: The company may retain the services of a safety and health consultant and/or insurance safety advisor. The individuals shall visit the company workplace for at least one full day per month, during which time they shall conduct on-site inspection of logging operations, conduct a safety meeting and be available for consultation with employees. These individuals shall also meet with the owner/operator, foreman, and supervisors to review workplace safety and health issues, Including all written reports.

Written reports made by these individuals will be maintained in the company files.

ORIENTATION: The company shall neither request nor permit an employee to begin work, or to begin a new task within the company, until the employee has been oriented to the job and has demonstrated the skill and work techniques necessary to do the job safely.

Each employee shall receive a personal copy of the safety and health program; a personal copy of the OSHA safety standards applicable to logging; and a personal copy of the work rules. The copies will be in the employee's native language. Each employee shall be required to read each of these documents, and those employees who cannot read shall have the documents read to them. Each employee shall also receive detailed verbal explanation of the company safety and health program, all safety standards and work rules before commencing work.

All employees will have the opportunity to ask questions and receive:
  • a detailed description of the job tasks assigned and the proper techniques for performing them;
  • detailed instruction on the proper use and maintenance of personal protective equipment;
  • training for identification of hazards and corresponding safety standards and work rules; and
  • on-site inspection to ensure technical competence and safety awareness. The determination of competence and awareness shall be made by the foreman and safety director in consultation.
TRAINING: The employer shall provide training for each employee, including supervisors, at no cost to the employee. Training shall be provided as follows:
  • As soon as possible for initial training for each current and new employee;
  • Prior to initial assignment for each new employee;
  • Whenever the employee is assigned new work tasks, tools, equipment, machines or vehicles; and
  • Whenever an employee demonstrates unsafe job performance.
At a minimum, training shall consist of the following elements:
  • Safe performance of assigned work tasks;
  • Safe use, operation and maintenance of tools, machines and vehicles which the employee uses or operates, including emphasis on understanding and following the manufacturer's operating and maintenance instructions, warnings and precautions.
  • Recognition of safety and health hazards associated with the employee's specific work tasks, including the use of measures and work practices to prevent or control those hazards.
  • Recognition, prevention and control of other safety and health hazards in the logging Industry; and
  • Procedures, practices and requirements of the employer's work site.
  • The employer shall train each current and new employee in those elements for which the employee has not received training.
  • The employer is responsible for ensuring that each current and new employee can properly and safely perform the work tasks and operate the tools, equipment, machines, and vehicles used in their job.
  • The company shall employ only certified logging professionals as fellers and skidder operators. Any such employee who is not so certified at the time of hire must obtain certification within one year of the date of hire.
  • The company shall provide training to employees at the time of their initial hire and at least annually thereafter. Training will also be provided whenever a change in job assignment will expose the employee to new hazards. This training shall occur before the employee starts the work for which the training is required.
  • At a minimum, employees shall be trained to recognize safety hazards associated with their individual work tasks, and the preventive and protective measures to deal with such hazards. The training provided by the company shall also give employees the information necessary to recognize and control safety hazards in the logging industry generally.
  • Employees shall demonstrate the ability to perform the tasks of their job.
  • All new and inexperienced employees and current employees unfamiliar with a new assignment shall be under the close guidance of the owner/operator or a supervisor until it is determined by the owner/operator or supervisor that those employees are able to work in a safe manner.
  • Training shall be obtained through a safety consultant, insurance safety person or any other equally qualified person. Training shall be provided in all areas in the Safety and Health Program and Work Rules including, but not limited to:
    • Hazard Communications Program First Aid
    • Felling Techniques
    • Chain Saw Operation
    • Machine/Skidder Operation
    • Bloodborne Pathogens
    • Dead Trees/Stubs/Widow Makers Set Backs
    • Personal Protective Equipment
    • Hung Trees
    • Noise Abatement
    • Hazard Identification
    • Hazardous Environmental Conditions
    • Lock Out/Tag Out
    • Emergency Communication and Evacuation
SAFETY COMMITTEE: The success of any accident prevention program depends on the cooperation and active support of all employees as well as the owner/operator.
  • A safety committee shall be organized at each logging operation. A safety committee facilitates employee participation in the safety program and hazard identification. The safety committee shall include the owner/operator, one employee from each job classification (e.g. feller, skidder operator, etc.), foreman and a supervisor.
  • The safety committee shall review accident investigation reports, and may make recommendations on eliminating unsafe conditions and practices. The committee may also recommend safety standards, work rules and training.
  • The safety committee shall meet at least monthly.
SAFETY MEETINGS: A safety meeting will be held every two weeks. All employees must attend safety meetings.
  • Safety meetings will be between thirty and forty-five minutes in duration, or longer if necessary to cover the subject matter of the meeting, and shall be conducted by the owner/operator, foreman or other qualified individual who, because of particular expertise, is qualified to teach the subject matter of the meeting.
  • An agenda will be available in advance of each safety meeting. All accidents and significant near misses shall be discussed at safety meetings. Written materials will be provided to employees as an aid to understanding the subject covered in the meeting. Minutes of each safety meeting will be taken and distributed to employees at the next meeting. A sample form for recording minutes is found as the last page of this appendix.
  • Employees are expected and encouraged to actively participate during safety meetings. Employees are also encouraged to identify topics to be covered in safety meetings. All employees present at the work site shall attend the safety meeting, and failure to do so shall be deemed a violation of company safety standards and will result in that employee being disciplined under the disciplinary program described herein.
SAFETY STANDARD AND WORK RULE ENFORCEMENT

Compliance with safety standards, the safety and health program and work rules is a condition of employment. An employee who fails to comply with safety standards or work rules shall be disciplined as follows:

First Violation: Verbal warning to the employee, along with instruction explaining the violation.

Second Violation: Written warning explaining the violation. The employee's supervisor and the owner/operator shall counsel the employee in an effort to avoid a reoccurrence of the same or a similar violation.

Third Violation: Suspension for one (1) week. A counseling meeting will be held with the employee, the owner/operator and the employee's supervisor. The employee shall submit a written statement demonstrating understanding of the safety standard or work rule violated, as well as what the employee intends to do in the future to ensure compliance. The written statement must be provided to the company before the employee will be allowed to commence work again.

Fourth Violation: Termination.
  • Flagrant, egregious or intentional violations of a safety standard or work rule may result in immediate termination.
  • The progressive disciplinary policy established by the Safety and Health Program does not alter or limit the company's right to terminate the employment relationship at any time for any reason. All employees are employees at will.
  • A written record, dated and signed by the employee, the employee's supervisor and the safety director shall be prepared and maintained for each violation of a safety standard or work rule.
REPORTING UNSAFE ACTS, CONDITIONS AND SIGNIFICANT NEAR MISSES
  • All observed unsafe acts, conditions and near misses must be reported to the owner/operator, foreman or supervisor. Failure to report such incidents or conditions results in the loss of valuable information that could prevent a serious accident or property damage in the future.
  • Investigations shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of this safety and health program.
HAZARD IDENTIFICATION
  • OSHA safety standards provide the basic safety requirements. Hazard identification is a continuous process, however, and all employees, supervisors and management must watch for and correct unsafe conditions. Safety standards and work rules shall be expanded as needed in accordance with ongoing hazard identification.
  • The company shall conduct on-site inspections, records reviews and accident investigations as part of its hazard identification program. The company believes that employee feedback on existing safety standards and work rules is important, and such feedback is encouraged.
  • Modification or deletion of a company safety standard or work rule shall be made only after consultation with a safety consultant and/or with OSHA.
ON-SITE INSPECTIONS
  • The company shall conduct on-site inspections of logging operations. On-site inspections will be conducted twice weekly by the owner/operator, foreman or supervisor.
  • The purpose of these inspections is to ensure compliance with OSHA safety standards, company safety standards, and company work rules.
  • When conducting inspections, the owner/operator, foreman, or supervisor shall identify hazards and problems at the work site to ensure that existing safety standards and work rules are adequate to ensure a safe work site.
  • Inspections will include a work site review, personal protective equipment review, review of the skill and technique of each employee and an equipment/machine review. The checklist attached hereto shall be used as a guide when conducting on-site inspections.
  • A written report of on-site inspections shall be made. In addition, each employee will be provided with a report of the inspection of his work activity. These records shall be maintained by the employer.
INVESTIGATION OF ACCIDENTS AND NEAR MISSES
  • An accident is an undesired event that results in injury or property damage.
  • All accidents and near misses must be reported immediately to the owner/operator, foreman, or supervisor. The owner/operator, foreman or supervisor shall conduct an on-site analysis and inspection of each accident and near miss. Investigations shall be conducted by using the attached form. A written report of the investigation shall be prepared and signed by the owner/operator, foreman, or supervisor, and shall be maintained by the company.
  • All investigation reports shall be posted for ten days in a place where employees may observe the report and comment. All investigation reports shall be discussed at the next occurring safety meeting.
FIRST AID KITS

The owner/operator, foreman, and all fellers shall be adequately trained in first aid methods as prescribed by the American Red Cross or an equivalent training program. In addition, one other person in each operating area shall also have this training.

Location, Contents: The employer shall provide first aid kits at each work site where felling is being conducted, at each landing, and on each employee transport vehicle. The number of first aid kits and the content of each kit shall reflect the degree of isolation, the number of employees, and the hazards reasonably anticipated at the work site. The locations where first aid kits are required have been expanded beyond "work site" and transport vehicles, to denote the landing area and felling site specifically.

The following is deemed to be the minimally acceptable number and type of first aid supplies for first aid kits required for logging work sites. The contents of the first aid kit listed should be adequate for small work sites, consisting of approximately two or three employees. When larger operations or multiple operations are being conducted at the same location, additional first aid kits should be provided at the work site, or additional quantities of supplies should be included in the first aid kits.

  1. Gauze pads (at least 4"x 4")

  2. Two large gauze pads (at least 8" x 10")

  3. Box adhesive bandages (band-aids)

  4. One package gauze roller bandage at least 2" wide

  5. Two triangular bandages

  6. Wound cleaning agent such as sealed, moistened towelettes

  7. Scissors

  8. At least one blanket

  9. Tweezers

  10. Adhesive tape

  11. Latex gloves

  12. Resuscitation equipment, such as a resuscitation bag, airway, or pocket mask

  13. Two elastic wraps

  14. Splint

  15. Directions for requesting emergency assistance
Maintenance: The employer shall maintain the contents of each first aid kit in a serviceable condition.

First Aid Training: The employer shall assure that each employee, including supervisors, receives or has received first aid and CPR training meeting at least the requirements specified as outlined below:
  • The following is deemed to be the minimal acceptable first aid and CPR training program for employees engaged in logging activities.
  • First aid and CPR training shall be conducted using the conventional methods of training such as lecture, demonstration, practical exercise and examination (both written and practical). The length of training must be sufficient to assure that trainees understand the concepts of first aid and can demonstrate their ability to perform the various procedures contained in the outline below.
  • At a minimum, first aid and CPR training shall consist of the following:
    1. The definition of first aid
    2. Legal issues of applying first aid (Good Samaritan Laws)
    3. Basic anatomy
    4. Patient assessment and first aid for the following:
      1. Respiratory arrest
      2. Cardiac arrest
      3. Hemorrhage
      4. Lacerations /abrasions
      5. Amputations
      6. Musculoskeletal injuries
      7. Shock
      8. Eye injuries
      9. Burns
      10. Loss of consciousness
      11. Extreme temperature exposure (hypothermia/hyperthermia)
      12. Paralysis
      13. Poisoning
      14. Loss of mental functioning (psychosis/hallucinations, etc.)
      15. Drug Overdose
    5. CPR
    6. Application of dressings and slings
    7. Treatment of strains, sprains, and fractures
    8. Immobilization of injured persons
    9. Handling and transporting of injured persons
    10. Treatment of bites, stings, or contact with poisonous plants or animals
      • The employer shall assure that each employee's first aid and CPR training and/or certificate of training remain current.
      • Designated Person: All training shall be conducted by a designated person or persons.
      • Each employee shall be provided with the name of every person who has been adequately trained in first aid.

Example Minutes of Safety Committee Meeting [Text Version]


APPENDIX D

SAMPLE LOGGING CONTRACTOR'S
BLOODBORNE PATHOGENS EXPOSURE CONTROL PLAN

In accordance with the OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Standard, 29 CFR 1910.1030, the following exposure control plan has been developed for __________________________.

EXPOSURE CONTROL

OSHA requires logging contractor employers to perform an exposure determination concerning which employees may incur occupational exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials. The following job classifications are in this category:

Feller, Skidder Operator, Mechanical Equipment Operators and Foreman.


EXPOSURE CONTROL

Exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials will not usually occur during the course of your employment duties. However, exposure is possible and it is imperative that everyone be aware of all potential exposures to blood or other infectious materials at all times. The most likely situation where exposure will occur is when you provide first aid or assistance in emergency treatment or evacuation, or where you are present at an accident scene or are exposed to clothing, equipment or other materials that have been penetrated by blood or other infectious material.

EXPOSURE DETERMINATION

Stop and assess each potential exposure to blood or other infectious material which you encounter. Avoid the potential exposure by not contacting the blood or other infectious material and by remaining outside the area within which the blood or other infectious material may be sprayed.

If the blood or other infectious material cannot be avoided entirely, the exposure must be controlled. Personal protective equipment shall be used to shield eyes, mouth, mucous membranes, non-intact skin (e.g., cuts, scrapes, open sores or rashes, etc.), and skin generally from contact with blood, bodily fluids or other potentially infectious material.

If confronted with an unavoidable exposure to blood, bodily fluids or other infectious material, the personal protective equipment listed in the next paragraph shall be used unless the delay necessary to obtain and put on the equipment may increase the risk of death or greater injury to the individual whom you are assisting. However, even if the aforementioned personal protective equipment cannot be used due to the extreme nature of the emergency, all employees shall take every step reasonably possible to cover and shield eyes, mouth, mucous membranes, non-intact skin and as much skin as possible before contacting blood, body fluids or other infectious material, and before entering the spray area. For example, employees shall take the following precautions to protect:
  • Eyes: protect with safety glasses, goggles or face mask, etc.
  • Ears: protect with ear/noise protection or hat, etc.
  • Hands: protect with gloves or other non-permeable material or tool, etc.
  • Mouth: protect with face shield, scarf, handkerchief, or mask, etc.
  • Body: protect with layers of clothing (e.g., put on coat, sweater, roll down sleeves, etc.) Put on disposable impermeable gown.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

Protective equipment and clothing shall be available in each vehicle operated by the logging contractor, foreman and supervisor, as well as at the woods camp, and shall include:
  • Gloves
  • Lab Coat
  • Face Shield
  • Apron
  • Protective eye wear with solid side shields or goggles
  • Utility gloves
  • Examination gloves
  • Resuscitation device
All personal protective equipment shall be removed prior to leaving the work area.

All personal protective equipment will be cleaned, laundered, and disposed of by the logging contractor/employer at no cost to employees.

All personal protective equipment contaminated by blood or other potentially infectious material shall be put into the container marked for this purpose.

CLEAN-UP AFTER EXPOSURE

An employee who has been exposed to blood, bodily fluids or other infectious material shall clean-up immediately.

All garments which are penetrated by blood shall be removed immediately or as soon as feasible. All garments or other material that has been contaminated shall be put into the container marked for this purpose. The container is to be labeled "BIOHAZARD".

Every vehicle operated by the logging contractor foreman and supervisor shall have either an antiseptic cleanser and clean paper/cloth towels or antiseptic towelettes for use by employees. If hand washing faciliteis are not immediately available, the employee shall use the antiseptic cleanser or antiseptic towelettes to clean his hands or other body parts. In addition, the employee shall wash his hands and other body parts with soap and water as soon as feasible. The logging contractor shall ensure that an ample supply of antiseptic cleanser or antiseptic towelettes are available in his vehicles and those operated by foreman and supervisor.

LAUNDRY PROCEDURES

All employees who handle contaminated laundry shall utilize personal protective equipment to prevent contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials. Laundry contaminated with blood or other potentially infectious materials shall be handled as little as possible. Such laundry shall be placed in appropriately marked bags at the locations where it was used. Such laundry shall not be sorted or rinsed in the area of use. The laundry shall then be placed in the "BIOHAZARD" container. The employer shall be responsible for disposing of or laundering contaminated clothing or other material.

CONTAMINATED EQUIPMENT

Equipment (chainsaws, wedges, etc.) that has become contaminated with blood or other potentially infectious materials shall be examined prior to servicing or shipping, and shall be decontaminated as necessary with a bleach or tuberculocidal solution or the equipment.

WORK AREA RESTRICTIONS

Gloves shall be worn where it is reasonably anticipated that employees will have hand contact with blood, other potentially infectious materials, non-intact skin, and mucous membranes. Gloves are available from the logging contractor, foreman, or supervisor who shall have disposable gloves in their vehicles. Gloves shall be used for first aid and emergency procedures where the employee is likely to be exposed to blood and/or other infectious material.

Disposable gloves shall not be washed or decontaminated for reuse and are to be replaced as soon as practical when they become contaminated or as soon as feasible if they are torn, punctured, or when their ability to function as a barrier is compromised. Utility gloves may be decontaminated for reuse provided that the integrity of the gloves is not compromised.

Masks in combination with eye protection devices, such as goggles or glasses with solid side shield, or chin-length face shields, shall be worn whenever splashes, spray, splatter, or droplets of blood or other potentially infectious materials may be generated and eye, nose or mouth contamination can reasonably be anticipated.

Any broken glassware that may be contaminated will not be picked up directly with the hands.

Mouth pipetting/suctioning of blood or other potentially infectious material is prohibited.

POST-EXPOSURE INCIDENT EVALUATION AND FOLLOW-UP

When the employee incurs an exposure incident, it shall be immediately reported to the logging contractor, foreman, or supervisor. An exposure incident is specific eye, mouth, other mucous membranes, non-intact skin, or potential contact with blood or other potentially infectious material that results from the performance of an employee's duties.

All employees who incur an exposure incident shall be offered post-exposure evaluation and follow-up in accordance with the OSHA standard. This follow-up shall include the following:

  1. Documentation of the route of exposure and the circumstances related to the incident.

  2. If possible, the identification of the source individual and, if possible, the status of the source individual. The blood of the source individual will be tested (after consent is obtained) for HIV/HBV infectivity.

  3. Results of testing of the source individual will be made available to the exposed employee, as provided by law, with the exposed employee informed about the applicable laws and regulations concerning disclosure of the identity and infectivity of the source individual.

  4. The employee will be offered the option of having blood collected for testing to determine the employee's HIV/HBV serological status. The blood sample will be preserved for up to 90 days to allow the employee time to decide if the blood should be tested for HIV serological status. However, if the employee decides prior to the time that testing will or will not be conducted, then the appropriate action can be taken and the blood sample, if collected, discarded.

  5. The employee will be offered post exposure prophylaxis in accordance with the current recommendations of the U.S. Public Health Service.

  6. The employee will be given appropriate counseling concerning precautions to take during the period after the exposure incident. The employee will also be given information on what potential illnesses to be alert for and to report any related experiences to appropriate personnel.

  7. The logging contractor shall assure that the policy outlined here is effectively carried out, and the logging contractor shall maintain records related to this policy.
INTERACTION WITH HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS

A written opinion shall be obtained from the health care professional who evaluates employees of this company. Written opinions will be obtained in the following instances:

  1. When the employee is sent to obtain a Hepatitis B vaccine.

  2. Whenever the employee is sent to a health care professional following an exposure incident.
Health care professionals shall be instructed to limit their opinions to:
  1. Whether the Hepatitis B vaccine is indicated and if the employee has received the vaccine, or for evaluation following an incident.

  2. That the employee has been informed of the results of the evaluation; and

  3. That the employee has been told about any medical conditions resulting from exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials. The written opinion to the employer is not to reference any personal medical information.
TRAINING

Training for all employees shall be conducted prior to initial assignment to tasks where occupational exposure may occur. Training will be conducted in the following manner:

Training for employees will include an explanation of:

  1. The OSHA standard for Bloodborne Pathogens;

  2. Epidemiology and symptomatology of bloodborne diseases;

  3. Modes of transmission of bloodborne pathogens;

  4. This Exposure Control Plan, i.e., points of the plan, lines of responsibility, how the plan might be implemented, etc.;

  5. Procedures which might cause exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials on the job site and camp;

  6. Personal protective equipment available at this facility and who should be contacted concerning;

  7. Post exposure evaluation and follow-up;

  8. Signs and labels at the job site and camp; and

  9. Hepatitis B vaccine program at the facility.

  10. The specifics of the First Aid Reporting Procedures.
HEPATITIS B VACCINE

All employees who have been identified as having exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials shall be offered the Hepatitis B vaccine, at no cost to the employee. The vaccine shall be offered within 10 working days of the initial assignment to work involving the potential for occupational exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials unless the employee has previously had the vaccine or who wishes to submit to antibody testing which shows the employee to have sufficient immunity.

Employees who initially decline the vaccine, but who later wish to have it, shall then have the vaccine provided at no cost. Any employee who declines the vaccine shall sign a " Declination Statement," a copy of which is attached hereto.

The logging contractor is responsible for assuring that the vaccine is offered, and for facilitating its provision to employees.

FIRST AID REPORT PROCEDURE

All first aid incidents involving the presence of blood or other potentially infectious materials shall be reported tothe logging contractor, foreman, or supervisor before the end of the work shift during which the first aid incident occurred.

Each report of a first aid incident must include all of the following:
  1. The names of all persons who provided assistance or first aid;
  2. A description of the first aid incident, including the time and date; and
  3. A determination of whether or not an exposure incident occurred.
Each report of a first aid incident shall be recorded on a list of such first aid incidents (that is, a first aid incident involving the presence of blood or other potentially infectious materials).

The logging contractor shall keep and maintain first aid incident reports and the list of such reports. An employee may review such reports or list upon request.

The logging contractor shall keep and maintain first aid incident reports and the list of such reports. An employee may review such reports or list upon request.

An employee who has occupational exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials, and who has not been offered a Hepatitis B vaccination and who provides hands-on first aid assistance in any situation involving the presence of blood or other potentially infectious materials shall be offered the full immunization series. In this specific situation, the full immunization series shall be offered to an employee whether or not a specific "exposure incident" has occurred. The logging contractor is responsible for coordinating the initiation of the full vaccination series, and he shall do so immediately.

RECORD KEEPING

All records required by the standard shall be maintained by the logging contractor.

All employees shall receive annual refresher training. The logging contractor shall be responsible for providing such training.



DECLINATION STATEMENT

I understand that due to my occupational exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials, I may be at risk of acquiring Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection. I have been given the opportunity to be vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccination at this time. I understand that by declining this vaccine, I continue to be at risk of acquiring hepatitis B, a serious disease. If, in the future, I continue to have occupational exposure to blood or other potentially infectious materials and I want to be vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccine, I can receive the vaccination series at no charge to me.

________________________________________________

Employee Signature                                       Date



LOGGING CONTRACTOR'S

SAFETY & HEALTH PLAN OUTLINE

LOGGING CONTRACTOR'S SAFETY RESPONSIBILITY

As a logging contractor with __________________corporation, I and my employees will permit safety personnel of ______________ corporation and/or their designee to conduct a safety and health audit of our logging work sites on a periodic basis. I or my designee will participate in the safety and health audit. Upon the completion of the safety and health audit, we will jointly complete a written report of all violations. __________________ will follow up on any required abatement with me or my designee. Training of all of my employees will begin as soon as possible following the initial safety audit. We will use the resources of _________________safety personnel for training.

I understand that after one year, ________________ will only employ individuals fully trained in safety and health, or will completely train all employees in safety and health, and will employ the services of a safety consultant or insurance safety person to assist in the development and implementation of a Safety and Health Program. I will have available for consultation on an as needed basis a safety consultant or insurance safety person. Such person shall visit the work sites of the company for a full day each month to conduct an inspection, consultation and/or a safety meeting. I or my designee will participate to the extent necessary in the consultation and meetings conducted by the safety consultant or insurance safety person.

WRITTEN WORK RULES

The logging contractor, with the assistance of _______________ Corporation, will adopt and implement written work rules. The written work rules to be prepared and implemented by the logging contractor will adopt the substance of the practices outlined in the OSHA standards. The work rules shall be written in both French and English where necessary. The rules shall comply with the performance standards published by OSHA pertaining to logging, and a copy of the actual standard shall be maintained at the work site and provided to each employee. The logging contractor and ___________________ Corporation shall prepare plain language interpretations of the OSHA standards in both French and English where necessary, and copies of each shall be given to each employee.

CERTIFIED LOGGING PROFESSIONALS (CLP)

All loggers employed by the logging contractor will be either Certified Logging Professional (CLP) or equivalently proficient, with the proficiency of non-certified loggers to be determined after interview and testing by the ________________ Corporation safety personnel, a safety consultant or insurance safety person. Each logger who is not a CLP or equivalent at the time of hire will become so certified within one (1) year.

SAFETY MEETINGS

As a logging contractor, I will require frequent safety meetings of relatively short duration to offer a better opportunity for the employees to understand and retain safety and health training. Safety meetings will be held every two weeks.

_________________ Corporation safety personnel will attend the initial safety meetings and at least one (1) per month for one (1) year. The meetings will be between thirty to forty-five minutes in duration. Attendance at safety meetings will be mandatory. An agenda will be furnished in advance of each meeting, and minutes of the meeting will be taken. Written materials will be used during the meeting and provided to employees in order to illustrate the subject covered in the meeting. For the first year, quarterly reports on all the safety meetings will be submitted to ________________ Corporation.

SELF AUDIT

The logging contractor will participate in audit inspections of the logging operations (manual felling and mechanical) and any woods camps. The logging contractor will visit the work crews regularly. The logging contractor will inspect/audit the work site two (2) times each week. The audit will focus on a work site review, personal protective equipment review, review of the skill and technique of the employee and an equipment/machine review. For the first year, a copy of a written report of such audits will be sent to _________________ Corporation. In addition, each employee will be provided with the written results of the inspection of his work activity.

DISCIPLINE POLICY

The logging contractor will establish a progressive discipline policy. The first violation of a safety and health standard or work rule shall result in a verbal warning to the employee, along with instruction to the employee explaining the violation. Written documentation of the verbal warning will be made. The second violation of a safety and health standard or work rule will result in a written warning signed by both the employee and supervisor. The logging contractor shall counsel the violating employee in an effort to avoid a reoccurrence of the same or similar violation in the future. The third violation of a safety and health standard or work rule shall result in the employee's suspension for one (1) week, further counseling will be held with the employee and a safety consultant (which can be ________________ Corporation's personnel during the first year of a contract), or insurance safety person in order to ensure that the employee understood the safety and health standard and/or work rule violated, as well as what needed to be done in order to comply with the standard or rule. Written documentation of the suspension and counseling will be made. In addition, an employee suspended pursuant to this provision will be required to submit a written statement which demonstrates an understanding of the safety or health standard and/or work rule, the violation of which resulted in his suspension, as well as what the employee intends to do in the future in order to comply with the safety or health standard and/or work rule. A copy of the employee's written statement will be maintained by the logging contractor. A subsequent violation of the safety and health standard and/or work rule will result in termination. Reports of all discipline activities are to be filed with ________________ Corporation.

SAFETY COMMITTEE

The logging contractor safety committee will encourage employee involvement and promote interest and participation within the safety process. The logging contractor safety committee will oversee, investigate and monitor accident and near miss activity. The logging contractor safety committee will review inspection reports and recommend corrective action.


OTHER PROVISIONS
  • The logging contractor shall maintain an OSHA 200 Log and Summary of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses. These records shall be maintained as specified in 29 C.F.R. 1904.2 and the record keeping guidelines for occupational injuries and illnesses.
  • The logging contractor shall maintain a hazard communication program. (See Appendix A of the Work Rules).
  • The logging contractor will establish and continue with a hearing conservation program.
  • The logging contractor shall develop and implement Lock Out/Tag Out procedures appropriate to their logging operation and equipment. (See Appendix B of the Work Rules).
  • The logging contractor shall maintain a Bloodborne Pathogens Exposure Control Plan. (See Appendix D of Work Rules).

LOGGING CONTRACTOR'S
SAFETY AND HEALTH AUDIT
  • As a logging contractor, I recognize the need to conduct a formal safety and health audit on a periodic basis at least annually, at the start of a new cutting season, and at each new cutting operation site.
  • Additionally, as a logging contractor, I recognize that more frequent, informal safety and health audits are necessary to provide up-to-date reviews of safety and health issues. On behalf of the logging contractor, contact for safety and health audit programs.
  • As a logging contractor, I or my designee ______________ will be the person(s) to report all known and potential safety and health hazards to _________________Corporation, along with a plan to correct the safety and health known or potential hazard.

_________________________________ Logging Contractor Signature & Date
 
   
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