Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA

ACCSH Presentation: Additional Proposed Cranes Amendments
Dec 1, 2016


Additional Proposed Crane Amendments

Background

  • OSHA is considering including four additional amendments in its proposed rule revising the Cranes and Derricks in Construction standard (cranes standard) (29 CFR part 1926, subpart CC). The Agency previously presented the proposed rule to ACCSH for consideration and recommendation.
  • OSHA believes the additional proposed amendments are not controversial and will make the standard clearer and easier for employers and workers to understand and follow.

§1926.1401 - Definitions - "Hoisting"

Background:

  • The cranes standard applies to equipment that can "hoist, lower and horizontally move a suspended load" (§1926.1400(a)).
  • The cranes standard defines "hoisting" as "the act of raising, lowering or otherwise moving a load in the air" with equipment this standard covers (§1926.1401).

Proposed Amendment:

  • OSHA proposes to amend the definition of "hoisting" to clarify that a load is considered to be "hoisted" if it exerts tension or force on the crane even if the load is held in a stationary position or remains at least partially in contact with the ground, a structure or other object (i.e., referred to as "partially lifted").

Reasons for proposed rulemaking:

  • Although employers primarily use cranes to hoist objects "in the air," for certain operations they may use a crane to support some or all of the weight of a stationary or partially-lifted load. In such instances, the crane bears the weight of the load even though the load is not free-swinging or hanging in the air.
  • Partially-lifted and stationary loads expose workers in fall zones to the same hazards (i.e., being struck by falling objects) as free-swinging loads.
  • The proposed amendment will protect workers in fall zones from being struck by any type of "hoisted" load.

§1926.1416 - Operational aids - use of operational aids in pile driving operations

Background:

  • The cranes standard requires that employers equip cranes with operational aids, which assist in the safe operation of the crane by providing information to the operator or automatically taking control of a crane function (§1926.1416(a)). Operational aids include:
    • Anti two-blocking devices -These devices warn the crane operator or stop the load block from hitting the boom tip or similar component when a crane is hoisting a load. If these components come into contact, it can cause the hoist rope to break and the load to fall; and
    • Load weighing and similar devices - These devices help the operator avoid exceeding the crane’s rated capacity, which could cause the crane to tip over.
  • Pile driving operations can damage anti two-blocking, load weighing and similar operational aids. To prevent damage, the cranes standard excepts employers from equipping lattice boom cranes with anti two-blocking devices during pile driving (§1926.1416(d))(3)(ii)(C)).

Proposed amendment:

  • OSHA proposes to revise the cranes standard to except employers from equipping telescopic boom cranes with anti two-blocking devices and all cranes with load weighing devices during pile driving operations (§§1926.1416(d)(3)(i) and (e)(4)(iii)).
  • OSHA also proposes that if employers do not use an operational aid during pile driving, they must protect workers by implementing the temporary alternative measures the standard requires when an operational aid is broken and being repaired:
    • Temporary alternative measures to anti two-blocking devices - For telescopic boom cranes, employers must mark the cable so the operator can see and know when to stop lifting and use a spotter when extending the boom;
    • Temporary alternative measures to load weighing and similar devices - Employers must determine the weight of the load and provide that information to the crane operator prior to the lift.

Reasons for proposed amendment:

  • The forceful repetitions or vibration of pile driving equipment, which is attached to the boom or hoist lines, can result in damage to or malfunction of anti two-blocking and load weighing devices on any crane used for pile driving.
  • OSHA believes the hazards posed by damage to anti two-blocking and load weighing devices outweigh any potential benefit of engaging the devices during pile driving.
  • During the cranes rulemaking, OSHA did not receive any recommendations to apply the exception from using anti two-blocking and load weighing and similar devices to other cranes that perform pile driving. The proposed amendment would make the exception consistent for all cranes employers use for pile driving operations.

§1926.1431 - Hoisting personnel - boom-attached personnel platforms

Background:

  • The cranes standard allows employers to use cranes to hoist workers, but only when all other methods are more hazardous or not possible (§1926.1431(a)).
  • With a few exceptions, the cranes standard requires that employers must hoist workers using a personnel platform (boom-mounted or suspended) that is capable of supporting, without fail, its own weight and at least five times (safety factor of 5) the maximum intended load (§1926.1431(e)(4)).
  • The ASME B30.23 - 2011 Personnel Lifting Systems national consensus standard also requires a safety factor of 5 for personnel platforms, except boom-attached personnel platforms constructed of ductile material, which must be capable of supporting two times (safety factor of 2) the maximum intended load.

Proposed Amendment:

  • OSHA proposes to amend the cranes standard to allow employers to use boom-attached personnel platforms constructed of ductile material that have a safety factor of 2. All other personnel platforms must continue to comply with a safety factor of 5.

Reasons for proposed rulemaking:

  • The proposed amendment will make the cranes standard consistent with ASME B30.23 - 2011, which manufacturers and the industry have followed since 1998.
  • Essentially all personnel platforms are made of ductile material, which provide a visible warning (e.g., stretching, deflection) of deterioration and wear well in advance of catastrophic failure.
  • The requirements in the cranes standard that employers inspect, lift test and proof test personnel platforms prior to hoisting any workers will help to ensure that employers will be able to identify potential deterioration in time to take appropriate corrective action (§1926.1431(h) and (j)).
  • Therefore, OSHA believes that adopting the ASME-B30.23 safety factor of 2 for boom-attached platforms made of ductile material will provide effective worker protection.

§ 1926.1437 - Floating cranes and cranes on barges - fall zone requirements

Background:

  • Walking-working surfaces on floating cranes/derricks and land cranes/derricks on barges (floating cranes and cranes on barges) can be so limited that workers on those surfaces are never outside the load fall zone.
  • C-DAC determined it was infeasible on floating cranes and cranes on barges to comply with requirements in the crane standard to "keep clear of the load," which include:
    • Permitting only essential workers to be in a fall zone;
    • Ensuring workers are not directly under hoisted loads;
    • Using hoisting routes that minimize worker exposure; and
    • Rigging loads to prevent them from falling on employees (§1926.1425).
  • As a result, in the cranes standard OSHA did not apply the requirements in §1926.1425 to floating cranes and cranes on barges (§1926.1437(c)).

Proposed amendment:

  • OSHA proposes to revise the cranes standard to apply the following requirements in §1926.1425 to floating cranes and cranes on barges:
    • §1926.1425(a) - Employers must use hoisting routes, where available, that minimize workers exposure to loads consistent with public safety; and
    • §1926.1425(c) - When workers are hooking/unhooking/initially connecting or guiding loads, employers must ensure:
      • The materials are rigged to prevent load displacement;
      • Hooks with self-closing latches or and equivalent are used; and
      • A qualified rigger rigs the load.
  • OSHA proposes that the remaining requirements in §1926.1425 do not apply when the load fall zone is on or above floating cranes or cranes on barges.
  • OSHA also proposes to add a note clarifying that all of the requirements in §1926.1425 apply when employers use floating cranes and cranes on barges to hoist loads on or above adjacent surfaces, such as an adjacent barge, dock, or land.

Reasons for proposed amendment:

  • OSHA believes that certain requirements in §1926.1425 to keep clear of the load are feasible even in limited spaces. For example:
    • It is feasible and essential in limited spaces that employers use hoisting routes that minimize passing over the fall zone; and
    • It is feasible to properly rig loads so they will not fall onto workers regardless of the sized of the space on floating cranes and cranes on barges.
  • The proposed note clearly emphasizes that the requirements in §1926.1425 already apply when employers use floating cranes and cranes on barges to hoist loads on and above surfaces that are adjacent to that equipment.
    • The spaces adjacent to floating cranes and cranes on barges do not pose the same space limitations.
    • The exemption in §1926.1437(c) only applies to fall zones on floating cranes and barges with cranes, not other walking-working surfaces.

Regulatory Test - Proposed and Current

  • Additional proposed amendments (in bold) and current regulatory text changes.
Additional Proposed Amendments Current Cranes Standard
§1926.1401 Definitions.

Hoisting is the act of raising, lowering or otherwise moving a load with equipment this standard covers. It also includes any operation in which the load exerts tension or force on the crane, even if the load remains in contact with the ground, structure or other object or is held in a stationary position. As used in this standard, a "suspended load" means a load that is hoisted, and "hoisting" can be done by means other than wire rope/hoist drum equipment.
§1926.1401 Definitions.

Hoisting is the act of raising, lowering or otherwise moving a load in the air with equipment covered by this standard. As used in this standard, "hoisting" can be done by means other than wire rope/hoist drum equipment.
§1926.1416 Operational aids.

    (d) Category I operational aids and alternative measures.
    (3) Anti two-blocking device.
    (i) Telescopic boom cranes.
    (A) Telescopic boom cranes manufactured after February 28, 1992, must be equipped with a device which automatically prevents damage from contact between the load block, overhaul ball, or similar component, and the boom tip (or fixed upper block or similar component). The device(s) must prevent such damage at all points where two-blocking could occur.
    (B) Temporary alternative measures: Clearly mark the cable (so that it can easily be seen by the operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the hoist to prevent two-blocking, and use a spotter when extending the boom.

    (C) Exception: For pile driving work, the requirements in paragraph (d)(3)(i)(A) do not apply if the employer complies with the requirements in (d)(3)(i)(B).

    (e) Category II operational aids and alternative measures.

    (4) Load weighing and similar devices.
    (i) Equipment (other than derricks and articulating cranes) manufactured after March 29, 2003, with a rated capacity of over 6,000 pounds must have at least one of the following: load weighing device, load moment (or rated capacity) indicator, or load moment (or rated capacity) limiter.
Temporary alternative measures: The weight of the load must be determined from a source recognized by the industry (such as the load’s manufacturer) or by a calculation method recognized by the industry (such as calculating a steel beam from measured dimensions and a known per foot weight). This information must be provided to the operator prior to the lift.
    (iii) Exception: For pile driving work, the requirements in paragraph (e)(4)(i) do not apply if the employer complies with the temporary alternative measures set forth in that paragraph.
§1926.1416 Operational aids.

    (d) Category I operational aids and alternative measures.
    (3) Anti two-blocking device.
    (i) Telescopic boom cranes.
    (A) Telescopic boom cranes manufactured after February 28, 1992, must be equipped with a device which automatically prevents damage from contact between the load block, overhaul ball, or similar component, and the boom tip (or fixed upper block or similar component). The device(s) must prevent such damage at all points where two-blocking could occur.
    (B) Temporary alternative measures: Clearly mark the cable (so that it can easily be seen by the operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the hoist to prevent two-blocking, and use a spotter when extending the boom.

    (e) Category II operational aids and alternative measures.

      (4) Load weighing and similar devices.
    (i) Equipment (other than derricks and articulating cranes) manufactured after March 29, 2003, with a rated capacity of over 6,000 pounds must have at least one of the following: load weighing device, load moment (or rated capacity) indicator, or load moment (or rated capacity) limiter.
Temporary alternative measures: The weight of the load must be determined from a source recognized by the industry (such as the load’s manufacturer) or by a calculation method recognized by the industry (such as calculating a steel beam from measured dimensions and a known per foot weight). This information must be provided to the operator prior to the lift.
§1926.1431 Hoisting personnel.

    (e) Personnel platform criteria.

    (4) The personnel platform itself (excluding the guardrail system and personal fall arrest system anchorages), must be capable of supporting, without failure, its own weight and at least five times the maximum intended load. Exception: A boom-attached personnel platform constructed of ductile material must be capable of supporting, without failure, its own weight and at least two times the maximum intended load.
§1926.1431 Hoisting personnel.

    (e) Personnel platform criteria.

    (4) The personnel platform itself (excluding the guardrail system and personal fall arrest system anchorages), must be capable of supporting, without failure, its own weight and at least five times the maximum intended load.
§1926.1437 Floating cranes/derricks and land cranes/derricks on barges.

    (d) Keeping clear of the load.
    (1) Section 1926.1425(a) and (c) apply to equipment this section covers.
    (2) Section 1926.1425(b), (d) and (e) do not apply when the fall zone of the load is on or above equipment this section covers.

    Note to §1926.1437(d): All of the requirements in §1926.1425 apply when equipment this section covers is used to hoist loads on or above adjacent surfaces, such as adjacent barges, docks, or land.
§1926.1437 Floating cranes/derricks and land cranes/derricks on barges.

    (d) Keeping clear of the load. Section 1926.1425 does not apply.
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