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Profile: Primary Metals and Basic Steel Products

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SIC 331 - Primary Metals and Basic Steel Products

Industry Description:

This industry group (SIC 331) is involved in manufacturing steel from hot metal and pig iron from iron ore, and iron and steel scrap. After the production of liquid steel, the product is initially cast into slab, billet or bloom shapes which is then hot rolled into such products as plates, sheets, strips, rods, bars, and tubing. This group also includes production of coke. The following four-digit Standard Industrial Classifications (SICs) fall under this industry group:

SIC 3312: Steel Works, Blast Furnaces (Including Coke Ovens), and Rolling Mills
SIC 3315: Steel Wiredrawing and Steel Nails and Spikes
SIC 3316: Cold-Rolled Steel Sheet, Strip, and Bars
SIC 3317: Steel Pipe and Tubes

This group (SIC 331) does not include: Iron and Steel foundries; Establishments engaged in Primary and Secondary Smelting and Refining of Nonferrous Metals; Rolling, Drawing and Extruding of Nonferrous Metals; and Nonferrous Foundries.

This industry group is large and complex, involving various operations, including blast furnaces. Blast furnaces chemically reduce and physically convert iron oxides into liquid pig iron or "hot metal." The furnace is up to 300 feet high and 36 feet in diameter, built of steel and refractory brick. Iron ore, coke and limestone are charged into the top, and preheated air is blown into the bottom. The furnace is charged, generally through automatic processes, using such equipment as conveyors and "skip cars." The most common fuels used in the furnace are coke, natural gas, and coal. Layers of limestone and iron ore are added to the fuel. The raw materials require 4 to 6 hours to descend to the bottom of the furnace where they become the final product of liquid slag and hot metal. The hot air that is blown into the bottom of the furnace ascends to the top in 6 to 8 seconds. The nitrogen in the air passes through the furnace, and the oxygen burns the fuel to create heat, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide gas. The carbon monoxide reacts with the iron oxides to produce iron. The heat smelts the iron and the other solids to form a liquid that collects in the bottom of the furnace with the slag floating on top of the molten iron. The blast furnace is tapped (emptied) through taphole(s) at the bottom of the furnace. The molten slag and hot metal are separated during tapping. The iron goes to a bottle car [a horizontal, refractory-lined vessel moving in and out of the furnace area on railroad tracks] and then to the steelmaking furnace; the slag goes to a separate ladle and is recycled into many products, primarily concrete and roadways.

The molten hot metal is taken to the basic oxygen furnace [BOF] shop where it is refined into steel. The hot metal is charged into the BOF vessel where it is mixed with recycled steel scrap. Pure oxygen is blown from the top of the vessel, bottom of the vessel, or both. The impurities in the hot metal are oxidized generating large quantities of heat, which melts the scrap and raises the temperature of the mix to approximately 3,000 degrees F. The mix is tapped [emptied] into a ladle where alloying elements are added.

An alternative process for making steel involves charging scrap into an electric arc furnace and melting it using electrical energy.

Steel from both the electric arc furnace and the BOF are tapped into a ladle. In some cases, the steel undergoes further refining to create the desired chemistry for its ultimate use. The finished molten steel is sent to a continuous casting machine, which continuously solidifies the steel into semi-finished shapes known as blooms, billets, or slabs.

The semi-finished products go to the hot rolling mill where the size is reduced. Many products are sold in the hot-rolled form. The balance goes to various cold finishing and coating operations to produce a variety of steel products, most of which are used to produce other commercial or industrial goods.



BLS Profile

Total Recordable Case Rate (Industry Group — 331)
Year Annual
1996 12.9
1997 12.0
1998 11.4
1999 9.6
2000 9.2
2001 8.4
2002 8.6*
2003 7.0/10.5**
2004 7.0/10.6**
2005 5.4/9.4**
graph: Total Recordable Case Rate


Lost Workday Case Rate (Industry Group — 331)
Year Annual
1996 5.4
1997 5.2
1998 5.4
1999 4.4
2000 4.5
2001 4.2
2002 4.4*
2003 3.8/6.1**
2004 3.6/5.3**
2005 2.8/4.7**
graph: Lost Workday Case Rate


Cases with Days Away Rate (Industry Group — 331)
Year Annual
1996 3.2
1997 2.9
1998 2.8
1999 2.6
2000 2.2
2001 2.3
2002 2.3*
2003 1.6/2.8**
2004 1.9/2.1**
2005 1.4/2.3**
graph: Cases with Days Away Rate


* Effective January 1, 2002, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) revised its requirements for recording occupational injuries and illnesses. Due to the revised recordkeeping rule, the estimates from the 2002 survey are not comparable with those from previous years, thus resulting in the discontinuous graph lines.

** Beginning with the 2003 reference year, the BLS Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses began using the 2000 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Prior to 2003, the survey used the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system. The substantial differences between these systems result in breaks in series for industry data. SIC Group 331 encompasses NAICS groups 3311 and 3312. The rates in the table reflect these two NAICS groups, respectively. From 2003 onward, NACIS Group 3311 is represented on the graph by the red data series, and NAICS 2312 is represented by the blue data series.


Fatality Total for NAICS Group 3311 (2005): 8
Fatality Total for NAICS Group 3312 (2005): 0

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics (National Data)


National Summary by Region
NAICS 3311/3312
Regions Establishments with 10 or more employees Establishments with 9 or fewer employees
Establishments Employees Establishments Employees
1 95 6412 141 392
2 133 12086 200 587
3 278 56373 255 685
4 165 12492 325 905
5 404 51589 446 1214
6 252 25424 384 1053
7 66 4038 96 314
8 20 2667 79 211
9 N/A N/A N/A N/A
10 2 72 17 41

N/A = Not applicable

Employment and establishments counts come from Dun & Bradstreet, March 2006.



Inspection Summary
FY 2006
Federal OSHA Inspection Data
Industry Group 331
Federal Data Only I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X Total
Total Inspections
  Records

  Safety
  Health
5
0

4
1
13
0

9
4
25
0

15
10
8
0

6
2
44
0

34
10
11
0

9
2
2
0

1
1
3
0

2
1
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
111
0

80
31
Inspections By Type
Unprogrammed
  Accidents
  Complaints
  Referrals
  Monitoring
  Variance
  Follow-Up
  Unprog. Related
  Other
Programmed
  Planned
  Prog. Related
  Other

5
0
4
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

10
0
3
5
1
0
1
0
0
3
3
0
0

15
1
11
3
0
0
0
0
0
10
10
0
0

15
1
11
3
0
0
0
0
0
10
10
0
0

33
2
25
4
0
0
1
1
0
11
8
3
0

9
3
5
0
0
0
1
0
0
2
2
0
0

2
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

81
6
51
18
1
0
4
1
0
30
27
3
0
Source: IMIS Database



Top 10 Violations Cited
Standard # Cited # Insp Description
1910.179 50 17 Overhead & Gantry Cranes
1910.147 42 18 The Control of Hazardous Energy, Lockout/Tagout
1910.219 38 16 Mechanical Power-Transmission Apparatus
1910.212 37 27 Machines, General Requirements
1910.23 30 19 Guarding Floor and Wall Openings and Holes
1910.22 24 16 Walking Working Surfaces, General Requirements
1910.305 23 12 Electrical, Wiring Methods, Components & Equipment
1910.303 22 14 Electrical, General Requirements
1910.178 21 12 Powered Industrial Trucks
1910.95 19 9 Occupational Noise Exposure

Source: IMIS Database — FY 2006 (Federal Only)
Average Number of Employees per Establishment: 52.6

Percent small establishments: 57.9%



Some Potential Hazards and Their Sources
Hazard Source
Burn and eye injuries Slag draw-off and metal pouring
Struck-by/crushing hazards Materials handling equipment in ore and scrap metal receipt and storage
Heat stress Furnace charging and operations
Respiratory hazards Exposure to metal fumes, dust, and silica
Strains and sprains Manual handling of materials and heavy loads
Fall hazards Elevated furnace walking-working surfaces



Average Case and Demographic Characteristics
Average cases per year, 1995-2000 7010
Demographics of worker Sex 91.4% men
Age 22.6% ages 25-34
30.8% ages 35-44
27.1% ages 45-54
Length of service with employer 51.4% more than 5 years
22.7% 1-5 years
14.6% less than one year
Race/ethnic origin 47.2% white non-Hispanic
40.6% not reported
 7.3% black not-Hispanic
 4.3% Hispanic of any race
Characteristics of injury/illness Days away from work 40.1% 1-5 days
34.0% 6-30 days
25.9% 31 or more days
Nature of injury/illness 41.1% sprains/strains
14.8% "all other" natures
11.2% cuts/lacerations/punctures
Part of body affected 25.6% arms/wrists/hands/fingers
23.9% legs/knees/feet/toes
20.9% back
Source of injury/illness 26.5% parts/material
14.3% worker motion/position
13.5% floors/ground surfaces
11.9% all "other sources"
11.0% containers
Event or exposure 23.7% overexertion
15.2% struck by object
10.0% "all other" events/exposure
 9.3% struck against object
Source: OSHA Office of Statistical Analysis compilation of BLS data

Note: The percentages on this table do not sum to 100%. Only the most frequently coded characteristics are listed. The "All Other" category should not be interpreted as being all inclusive of the categories not listed above.



2005 BLS Industry Data for
NAICS Group 3111 - IRON AND STEEL MILLS AND FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING
All Reported Cases

1500
Nature of Illness or Injury
Sprains, Strains
Fractures
Cuts, Punctures
Bruises
Heat Burns
Chemical Burns
Amputations
Carpal Tunnel
Tendonitis
Mult Trauma Total
Mult Trauma With Fracture
Mult Trauma With Sprain
Back Pain Total
Back Pain Hurt Back Only
All Other

Number
590
160
60
120
100
N/A
20
20
N/A
90
30
20
40
N/A
290
% Total
39.3
10.7
4.0
8.0
6.7
N/A
1.3
1.3
N/A
6.0
2.0
1.3
2.7
N/A
19.3
Part of Body Affected
Head Total
Eyes
Neck
Trunk Total
Trunk Back
Trunk Shoulder
Upper Extremities Total
Upper Extremities Finger
Upper Extremities Hand
Upper Extremities Wrist
Lower Extremities Total
Lower Extremities Knee
Lower Extremities Foot Toe
Body Systems
Multiple Body Parts
All Other Body Parts

Number
120
70
20
380
230
90
350
170
60
40
480
130
100
20
120
N/A
% Total
8.0
4.7
1.3
25.3
15.3
6.0
23.3
11.3
4.0
2.7
32.0
8.7
6.7
1.3
8.0
N/A
Source of Injury or Illness
Chem And Chem Products
Containers
Furniture And Fixtures
Machinery
Parts And Materials
Worker Motion
Floors Walkways
Handtools
Vehicle
Health Care Patient
All Other Sources

Number
30
100
N/A
170
450
240
190
90
50
N/A
180
% Total
2.0
6.7
N/A
11.3
30.0
16.0
12.7
6.0
3.3
N/A
12.0
Sex
Men
Women
Sex Not Reported

Number
1410
90
N/A
% Total
94.0
6.0
N/A
Age
Under 14
14 to 15
16 to 19
20 to 24
25 to 34
35 to 44
45 to 54
55 to 64
65 And Over
Not Reported

Number
N/A
N/A
N/A
80
230
420
480
280
N/A
N/A
% Total
N/A
N/A
N/A
5.3
15.3
28.0
32.0
18.7
N/A
N/A
Race
White
Black
Asian
American Indian or Alaskan Native
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander
Hispanic or Latino And Others
Multirace
Race Not Reported

Number
620
160
N/A
N/A
N/A
70
N/A
650
% Total
41.3
10.7
N/A
N/A
N/A
4.7
N/A
43.3
Length of Service
Less Than 3 Months
3 to 11 Months
1 to 5 years
More Than 5 Years
Service Not Reported

Number
70
170
520
730
N/A
% Total
4.7
11.3
34.7
48.7
N/A
Days away from work
1 Day
2 Days
3 to 5 Days
6 to 10 Days
11 to 20 Days
21 to 30 Days
31 Days Or More
Median Days Away

Number
140
110
110
160
290
150
670
21
% Total
8.5
6.7
6.7
9.8
17.7
9.1
40.9
N/A
Event/Exposure Leading to Injury
Total Contact With Objects
Struck By Object
Struck Against Object
Caught In Object
Fall to Lower Level
Fall On Same Level
Slips Or Trips
Overexertion Total
Overexertion In Lifting
Repetitive Motion
Exposure to Harmful Substance
Transportation Accidents
Fires And Explosions
Total Assaults - Violent Acts
Assaults By Person
All Other Assaults
All Other Events

Number
550
220
130
170
80
120
80
300
80
50
140
20
30
N/A
N/A
N/A
120
% Total
36.7
14.7
8.7
11.3
5.3
8.0
5.3
20.0
5.3
3.3
9.3
1.3
2.0
N/A
N/A
N/A
8.0



2005 BLS Industry Data for
NAICS Group 3312 — STEEL PRODUCT MANUFACTURING FROM PURCHASED STEEL
All Reported Cases

1410
Nature of Illness or Injury
Sprains, Strains
Fractures
Cuts, Punctures
Bruises
Heat Burns
Chemical Burns
Amputations
Carpal Tunnel
Tendonitis
Mult Trauma Total
Mult Trauma With Fracture
Mult Trauma With Sprain
Back Pain Total
Back Pain Hurt Back Only
All Other

Number
550
180
160
120
20
20
20
N/A
N/A
30
N/A
N/A
70
30
210
% Total
39.0
12.8
11.3
8.5
1.4
1.4
1.4
N/A
N/A
2.1
N/A
N/A
5.0
2.1
14.9
Part of Body Affected
Head Total
Eyes
Neck
Trunk Total
Trunk Back
Trunk Shoulder
Upper Extremities Total
Upper Extremities Finger
Upper Extremities Hand
Upper Extremities Wrist
Lower Extremities Total
Lower Extremities Knee
Lower Extremities Foot Toe
Body Systems
Multiple Body Parts
All Other Body Parts

Number
60
20
N/A
510
290
120
490
280
60
80
290
90
50
20
30
N/A
% Total
4.3
1.4
N/A
36.2
20.6
8.5
34.8
19.9
4.3
5.7
20.6
6.4
3.5
1.4
2.1
N/A
Source of Injury or Illness
Chem And Chem Products
Containers
Furniture And Fixtures
Machinery
Parts And Materials
Worker Motion
Floors Walkways
Handtools
Vehicle
Health Care Patient
All Other Sources

Number
30
140
N/A
190
410
210
160
70
30
N/A
170
% Total
2.1
9.9
N/A
13.5
29.1
14.9
11.3
5.0
2.1
N/A
12.1
Sex
Men
Women
Sex Not Reported

Number
1310
100
N/A
% Total
92.9
7.1
N/A
Age
Under 14
14 to 15
16 to 19
20 to 24
25 to 34
35 to 44
45 to 54
55 to 64
65 And Over
Not Reported

Number
N/A
N/A
N/A
100
310
340
440
190
N/A
20
% Total
N/A
N/A
N/A
7.1
22.0
24.1
31.2
13.5
N/A
1.4
Race
White
Black
Asian
American Indian or Alaskan Native
Native Hawaiian / Other Pacific Islander
Hispanic or Latino And Others
Multirace
Race Not Reported

Number
810
100
N/A
N/A
N/A
210
N/A
210
% Total
57.4
7.1
N/A
N/A
N/A
14.9
N/A
14.9
Length of Service
Less Than 3 Months
3 to 11 Months
1 to 5 years
More Than 5 Years
Service Not Reported

Number
90
180
300
850
N/A
% Total
6.4
12.8
21.3
60.3
N/A
Days away from work
1 Day
2 Days
3 to 5 Days
6 to 10 Days
11 to 20 Days
21 to 30 Days
31 Days Or More
Median Days Away

Number
140
140
170
150
240
100
480
16
% Total
9.9
9.9
12.1
10.6
17.0
7.1
34.0
15
Event/Exposure Leading to Injury
Total Contact With Objects
Struck By Object
Struck Against Object
Caught In Object
Fall to Lower Level
Fall On Same Level
Slips Or Trips
Overexertion Total
Overexertion In Lifting
Repetitive Motion
Exposure to Harmful Substance
Transportation Accidents
Fires And Explosions
Total Assaults - Violent Acts
Assaults By Person
All Other Assaults
All Other Events

Number
550
240
90
170
50
130
50
370
130
50
70
20
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
140

% Total
39.0
17.0
6.4
12.1
3.5
9.2
3.5
26.2
9.2
3.5
5.0
1.4
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
9.9


Target Industry Selection Criteria
  2000
SIC 331
2001
SIC 331
2002*
SIC 331
2003-NAICS**
3311/3312
2004-NAICS**
3311/3312
2005-NAICS**
3311/3312
Criterion #1 — Total Cases 5000 or more) 5444 4970 4394 1540/1640 2020/1260 2900/2900
Criterion #2 — LWDII (3.5 or greater) (DART after 2003) 4.5 4.2 4.4 3.8/6.1 3.6/5.3 2.8/4.7
Criterion #3 — Ergonomic Injuries and Illnesses (no more than 30% of total injuries and illnesses involving days away from work caused by ergonomic events) 26% 31% 26% 29%/33% 27%/20% 27%/32%
Criterion #4 — Severe Injuries and Illnesses (at least 50% result in at least six days away from work) 62.4% 64.7% 65.8% 77.5%/67.0% 58.0%/68.2% 69.3%/68.7%
Criterion #5 — No more than 10% of the injuries involve transportation incidents <10% <10% <10% <10% <10% <10%
Criterion #6 — No more than 10% of the injuries involve assaults and violent acts <10% <10% <10% <10% <10% <10%
Criterion #7 — Not in the Construction Industry Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied Satisfied


*Effective January 1, 2002, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) revised its requirements for reporting occupational injuries and illnesses. Due to the revised recordkeeping rule, the estimates from the 2002 survey are not comparable with those from previous years, thus resulting in the continuous graph lines.

**Beginning with the 2003 reference year, the BLS Survey of Occupational Injuires and Illnesses began using the 2000 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Prior to 2003, the survery used the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system. The substantial differences between these systems results in breaks in series for industry data. SIC Group 331 encompasses NAICS groups 3311 and 3312. The data in the table reflect these two NAICS groups, respectively.
 
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