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Profile: Concrete and Concrete Products
Concrete Blocks


Office of General Industry Enforcement
Table of Contents



Industry Group 327 - Concrete and Concrete Products

Industry Description:

Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing concrete building block and brick from a combination of cement and aggregate, including architecture block concrete, concrete and cinder blocks, concrete brick, concrete paving block, and plinth blocks. Contractors engaged in concrete construction work are classified in Division C, Construction. Establishments primarily engaged in mixing and delivering ready-mixed concrete are classified in Industry 3273.

Process Description:

Concrete masonry units are made by combining aggregates (natural or manufactured), cement and water in the proper proportions. These materials are stored in silos and/or bins and then measured by weight to obtain the desired consistency. Once measured, they are mixed and fed into the block machine, where the green material is formed into the desired shape. After being formed, these fragile units are moved to storage racks. The racks are transported by forklift to curing kilns. The block remains inside the kilns for 24 hours at a temperature of approximately 175 degrees F with a very high humidity, produced by the introduction of live steam within the closed kilns.

After the curing cycle, the masonry units are removed and placed on equipment to separate them from the racks. Once removed, they travel by conveyor to the cubing machine where they are stacked into cubes. These cubes then travel by roller conveyor into the strapping station, where metal bands are applied to form a secure unit that can be handled by forklift truck. The forklift moves the finished products to the open yard for storage. From the storage yard, they are loaded on delivery trucks and transported to the construction site. At the jobsite, the packages of masonry units are unloaded with a boom that is a part of the delivery truck. Masonry units are divided into two classes: (1) lightweight blocks (manufactured lightweight aggregate, cement, water) (2) normal weight blocks. The standard masonry unit is the 8 inch regular block (8" x 8" x 16"). Approximately 120 different types of units are currently in use.

Source: SIC Manual for 1987 and North Carolina Department of Labor Industrial Data Report, 8-1-76




BLS Profile

Total Recordable Case Rate (Industry Group - 327)
Year Annual
1995 12.5
1996 13.9
1997 12.8
1998 13.4
1999 11.2
2000 10.9
2001 10.7
2002 10.0*
2003 8.0**
2004 8.2
graph: Total Recordable Case Rate

Lost Workday Case Rate (Industry Group - 327)
Year Annual
1995 5.9
1996 6.7
1997 6.0
1998 7.0
1999 6.0
2000 6.0
2001 5.8
2002 6.0
2003 4.8*
2004 5.5**
graph: Lost Workday Case Rate

Cases with Days Away Rate (Industry Group - 327)
Year Annual
1995 4.7
1996 4.9
1997 4.1
1998 4.3
1999 3.9
2000 3.5
2001 3.6
2002 3.4*
2003 2.6**
2004 2.7
graph: Cases with Days Away Rate
* Effective January 1, 2002, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) revised its requirements for recording occupational injuries and illnesses. Due to the revised recordkeeping rule, the estimates from the 2002 survey are not comparable with those from previous years, resulting in the discontinuous graph lines

** Beginning with the 2003 reference year, the BLS Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses began using the 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Prior to 2003, the survey used the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system. The substantial differences between these systems result in breaks in series for industry data.


Fatality Total for NAICS Group 3273 (2004): 37

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics



National Summary by Region

NAICS 3273
Regions Establishments with 10 or more employees Establishments with 9 or fewer employees
Establishments Employees Establishments Employees
1 210 6877 310 755
2 309 9634 484 1173
3 340 12039 422 1357
4 945 32996 1315 3505
5 696 22690 1000 2901
6 809 31288 1247 3342
7 331 12721 510 1684
8 206 7964 377 1089
9 N/A N/A N/A N/A
10 33 925 82 219

N/A = Data not available

Establishment and employment counts come from Dunn & Bradstreet, March 2006.




Inspection Summary
FY 2005
Federal OSHA Inspection Data
Industry Group 327

Federal Data Only I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X Total
Total Inspections
Records

  Safety
  Health
24
0

13
11
40
3

17
23
68
0

30
38
40
0

21
19
102
0

32
70
54
0

13
14
28
0

17
11
59
0

31
28
2
0

2
0
5
0

3
2
422
3

179
243
Inspections By Type

Unprogrammed
  Accidents
  Complaints
  Referrals
  Monitoring
  Variance
  Follow-Up
  Unprog. Related
  Other

Programmed
  Planned
  Prog. Related
  Other

19
0
11
6
0
0
1
1
0

5
5
0
0

17
2
6
7
0
0
1
1
0

23
21
2
0

19
1
10
5
0
0
3
0
0

49
48
1
0

26
2
15
4
0
0
1
4
0

14
14
0
0

24
1
18
1
0
0
1
3
0

78
76
2
0

9
2
5
0
0
0
2
0
0

45
45
0
0

8
2
4
0
0
0
1
1
0

20
20
0
0

13
1
5
3
0
0
3
1
0

46
45
1
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

2
2
0
0

5
1
3
0
0
0
0
1
0

0
0
0
0

140
12
77
26
0
0
13
12
0

282
276
6
0
Source: IMIS Database



Top 10 Violations Cited
Standard # Cited # Insp Description
1910.134 301 114 Respiratory Protection
1910.147 207 103 The Control of Hazardous Energey, Lockout/Tagout
1910.1200 200 113 Hazard Communication
1910.146 164 74 Permit-Required Confined Spaces
1910.23 107 78 Guarding Floor & Wall Openings & Holes
1910.95 96 48 Occupational Noise Exposure
1910.305 90 50 Electrical, Wiring Methods, Components & Equip.
1910.212 76 60 Machines, General Requirements
1910.178 71 44 Powered Industrial Trucks
1910.219 70 39 Mechanical Power-Transmission Apparatus

Source: IMIS Database - FY 2005 (Federal Only)

Average Number of Employees per Establishment: 15.9

Percent Small Establishments: 59.7




Some Potential Hazards and Their Sources
Hazard Source
Amputations Equipment such as conveyors, and metalworking machinery
Permit-required confined space hazards such as engulfment, asphyxiation Silos, forms, mixers, hoppers
Crushing Working on concrete forms, loading products
Falls Working on concrete forms, loading products
Electrocution Equipment such as conveyors, machinery
Vehicle - Vehicle Accidents Mechanical Handling Equipment - forklifts, etc.



Average Case and Demographic Characteristics
Average cases per year, 1995-2000 9,024
Demographics of worker Sex 95.42% men
Age 25.9% ages 25-34
32.2% ages 35-44
20.6% ages 45-54
Length of service with
employer
13.4% Less than 3 months
20.6% 3-11 months
32.5% 1-5 years
22.2% More than 5 years
Race/ethnic origin 57.1% White non-Hispanic
14.9% Hispanic - any race
Characteristics of
injury/illness
Days away from work 45.1% 1-5 days
29.5% 6-30 days
25.4% 31 or more days
Nature of
injury/illness
40.3% sprains/strains
22.4% "all other" natures
18.0% cuts/lacerations/punctures
Part of body affected 33.7% trunk total
24.1% lower extremities total
23.4% upper extremities total
17.8% trunk back
Source of
injury/illness
21.3% Parts and materials
16.9% vehicle
14.8% worker motion
14.2% floors walkways
9.5% machinery
9.3% all "other sources"
Event or exposure 34.3% total contact with objects
20.7% overexertion total
14.3% struck by object
10.9% caught in object
10.6% overexertion in lifting
Source: OSHA Office of Statistical Analysis compilation of BLS data

Note: The percentages on this table do not sum to 100%. Only the most frequently coded characteristics are listed. The "All Other" category should not be interpreted as being all inclusive of the categories not listed above.



2003 BLS Industry Data
INDUSTRY GROUP - 327 - CONCRETE, GYPSUM, AND PLASTER PRODUCTS

All Reported Cases

6030
Nature of Illness or Injury
Sprains, Strains
Fractures
Cuts, Punctures
Bruises
Heat Burns
Chemical Burns
Amputations
Carpal Tunnel
Tendonitis
Mult Trauma Total
Mult Trauma With Fracture
Mult Trauma With Sprain
Back Pain Total
Back Pain Hurt Back Only
All Other

Number
2620
620
420
460
100
40
80
N/A
N/A
230
70
100
280
150
1180
% Total
43.4
10.3
7.0
7.6
1.7
0.7
1.3
N/A
N/A
3.8
1.2
1.7
4.6
2.5
19.6
Part of Body Affected
Head Total
Eyes
Neck
Trunk Total
Trunk Back
Trunk Shoulder
Upper Extremities Total
Upper Extremities Finger
Upper Extremities Hand
Upper Extremities Wrist
Lower Extremities Total
Lower Extremities Knee
Lower Extremities Foot Toe
Body Systems
Multiple Body Parts
All Other Body Parts

Number
350
230
120
2200
1390
430
1190
370
240
190
1400
470
150
70
570
140
% Total
5.8
3.8
2.0
36.5
23.1
7.1
19.7
6.1
4.0
3.2
23.2
7.8
2.5
1.2
9.5
2.3
Source of Injury or Illness
Chem And Chem Products
Containers
Furniture And Fixtures
Machinery
Parts And Materials
Worker Motion
Floors Walkways
Handtools
Vehicle
Health Care Patient
All Other Sources

Number
100
400
50
490
790
1150
1060
230
890
N/A
860
% Total
1.7
6.6
0.8
8.1
13.1
19.1
17.6
3.8
14.8
N/A
14.3
Sex
Men
Women
Sex Not Reported

Number
5780
260
N/A
% Total
95.9
4.3
N/A
Age
Under 14
14 to 15
16 to 19
20 to 24
25 to 34
35 to 44
45 to 54
55 to 64
65 And Over
Not Reported

Number
N/A
N/A
130
290
1560
1930
1350
640
100
N/A
% Total
N/A
N/A
2.2
4.8
25.9
32.0
22.4
10.6
1.7
N/A
Race
White
Black
Asian
American Indian or Native Alaskan
Hispanic or Latino and Others
Multirace
Race Not Reported

Number
3490
490
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
980
% Total
57.9
8.1
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
16.3
Length of Service
Less Than 3 Months
3 to 11 Months
1 to 5 years
More Than 5 Years
Service Not Reported

Number
700
1310
2290
1730
N/A
% Total
11.6
21.7
38.0
28.7
N/A
Days away from work
1 Day
2 Days
3 to 5 Days
6 to 10 Days
11 to 20 Days
21 to 30 Days
31 Days Or More
Median Days Away

Number
700
610
930
730
720
360
2000
11
% Total
11.6
10.1
15.4
12.1
11.9
6.0
33.2
N/A
Event/Exposure Leading to Injury
Total Contact With Objects
Struck By Object
Struck Against Object
Caught In Object
Fall to Lower Level
Fall On Same Level
Slips Or Trips
Overexertion Total
Overexertion In Lifting
Repetitive Motion
Exposure to Harmful Substance
Transportation Accidents
Fires And Explosions
Total Assaults - Violent Acts
Assaults By Person
All Other Assaults
All Other Events

Number
1660
740
360
450
590
550
390
970
500
80
190
490
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
1070
% Total
27.5
12.3
6.0
7.5
9.8
9.1
6.5
16.1
8.3
1.3
3.2
8.1
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
17.7




Photo Credits:

1.     Beau Ellis, Takoma Park, MD.


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