Evaluating Exposure

Sampling and Analysis


For additional information, see OSHA's Sampling and Analysis Safety and Health Topics Page.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)

  • NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM). NMAM is a collection of methods for sampling and analysis of contaminants in workplace air, and in the blood and urine of workers who are occupationally exposed. NMAM also includes chapters on quality assurance, sampling, portable instrumentation, etc.


  • U.K. Health and Safety Executive Method 25/2
  • The following are analysis methods for specific isocyanate compounds. It is often desirable to determine the amount of free isocyanate, not just the specific compound. Several methods have been suggested to accomplish this. However, all have had serious problems when applied to field sampling.
    • Streicher, RP, et al. Investigation of the ability of MDHS method 25 to determine urethane-bound isocyanate groups. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 1995;56(5):437-42.
    • Key-Schwartz, RJ. Analytical problems encountered with NIOSH method 5521 for total isocyanates. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 1995;56(5):474-9.
    • Maitre, A., et al. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to toluene diisocyanate. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health. 1993;65:97-100.
    • Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. American Conference for Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). 1991;6:1581-9.