- Safety and Health Topics
- Fire Safety
Fire safety is addressed in specific OSHA standards for recordkeeping, general industry, shipyard employment, marine terminals, longshoring, gear certification, and construction. This section highlights OSHA standards and documents related to fire safety.
Recording and Reporting Occupational Injuries and Illness (29 CFR 1904)
|Subpart B – Scope||1904.2, Partial exemption for establishments in certain industries|
|1904.7, General recording criteria|
General Industry (29 CFR 1910)
|Subpart E – Exit Routes and Emergency Planning||1910.35, Compliance with alternate exit-route codes|
|1910.36, Design and construction requirements for exit routes|
|1910.37, Maintenance, safeguards, and operational features for exit routes|
|1910.38, Emergency action plans|
|1910.39, Fire prevention plans|
|Subpart G – Occupational Health and Environmental Control||1910.94, Ventilation|
|Subpart H – Hazardous Materials||1910.101, Compressed gases (general requirements)|
|1910.106, Flammable liquids|
|1910.107, Spray finishing using flammable and combustible materials|
|1910.109, Explosives and blasting agents|
|1910.110, Storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gases|
|1910.111, Storage and handling of anhydrous ammonia|
|1910.119, Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals|
|1910.120, Hazardous waste operations and emergency response|
|Subpart L – Fire Protection|
|1910.155, Scope, application and definitions applicable to this subpart|
|1910.156, Fire brigades|
|1910.157, Portable fire extinguishers|
|1910.158, Standpipe and hose systems|
|1910.159, Automatic sprinkler systems|
|1910.160, Fixed extinguishing systems, general|
|1910.161, Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical|
|1910.162, Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent|
|1910.163, Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam|
|1910.164, Fire detection systems|
|1910.165, Employee alarm systems|
|Subpart N – Materials Handling and Storage||1910.178, Powered industrial trucks|
|Subpart Q – Welding, Cutting and Brazing|
|1910.252, General requirements|
|1910.253, Oxygen-fuel gas welding and cutting|
|1910.255, Resistance welding|
|Subpart R – Special Industries||1910.261, Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills|
|1910.263, Bakery equipment|
|1910.266, Logging operations|
|1910.269, Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution|
|1910.272, Grain handling facilities|
|Subpart Z – Toxic and Hazardous Substances||1910.1200, Hazard communication|
Maritime (29 CFR 1915, 1917, 1918)
|1915 Subpart P – Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment|
|1915.501, General provisions|
|1915.502, Fire safety plan|
|1915.503, Precautions for hot work|
|1915.504, Fire watches|
|1915.505, Fire response|
|1915.506, Hazards of fixed extinguishing systems on board vessels and vessel sections|
|1915.507, Land-side fire protection systems|
|1915.509, Definitions applicable to this subpart|
|1917 Subpart B – Marine Terminal Operations||1917.21, Open fires|
|1917.30, Emergency action plans|
|1917 Subpart G – Related Terminal Operations and Equipment||1917.152, Welding, cutting and heating (hot work)|
|1917.156, Fuel handling and storage|
|1917.158, Prohibited operations|
|1918 Subpart I – General Working Conditions||1918.100, Emergency action plans|
For additional information on OSHA standards for Shipyard Employment, Marine Terminals, and Longshoring, see the OSHA Assistance for the Maritime Industry Page.
Construction (29 CFR 1926)
|Subpart C – General Safety and Health Provisions||1926.24, Fire protection and prevention|
|1926.34, Means of egressn|
|1926.35, Employee emergency action plans|
|Subpart D – Occupational Health and Environmental Controls||1926.57, Ventilation|
|1926.64, Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals. For requirements as they pertain to construction work, follow the requirements in 29 CFR 1910.119.|
|1926.65, Hazardous waste operations and emergency response|
|1926.66,Criteria for design and construction of spray booths|
|Subpart F – Fire Protection and Prevention|
|1926.150, Fire protection|
|1926.151, Fire prevention|
|1926.152, Flammable liquids|
|1926.153, Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas)|
|1926.154, Temporary heating devices|
|1926.155, Definitions applicable to this subpart|
|Subpart H – Materials Handling, Storage, Use, and Disposal||1926.252, Disposal of waste materials|
|Subpart J – Welding and Cutting||1926.350, Gas welding and cutting|
|1926.352, Fire prevention|
|Subpart K – Electrical|
|1926.405, Wiring methods, components, and equipment for general use|
|1926.408, Special systems|
|Subpart R – Steel Erection||1926.752, Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction sequence|
|Subpart S – Underground Construction, Caissons, Cofferdams, and Compressed Air||1926.800, Underground construction|
|1926.803, Compressed air. Includes a section on fire protection and prevention|
|Subpart T – Demolition||1926.850, Preparatory operations|
|Subpart U – Blasting and the Use of Explosives|
Note: The "Directives" bullets above link to directives related to each OSHA standard. The directives in this list provide additional information that is not necessarily connected to a specific OSHA standard highlighted on this Safety and Health Topics page.
- Compliance Policy for Emergency Action Plans and Fire Prevention Plans. CPL 02-01-037 [CPL 2-1.037], (July 9, 2002). Provides a consolidated compliance policy for the application of emergency action plans (EAPs) and fire prevention plans (FPPs), General Industry Standard for 29 CFR 1910.38.
- 1910.156(e)(3)(ii) Fire - Resistive Coat Requirements for Fire Brigades. STD 01-09-003 [STD 1-9.3], (December 12, 1981). Recognizes a variation to the washing cycle requirements referenced in 29 CFR 1910.156(e)(3)(ii).
- 29 CFR 1910.157(f)(2),(f)(2)(i) and (f)(4) Hydrostatic Testing of Dry Chemical Cartridge Portable Fire Extinguishers. STD 01-09-002 [STD 1-9.2], (August 5, 1981). Provides exceptions for hydrostatic testing and repairs.
There are 28 OSHA-approved State Plans, operating state-wide occupational safety and health programs. State Plans are required to have standards and enforcement programs that are at least as effective as OSHA's and may have different or more stringent requirements.
National Consensus Standards and Recommendations from other Professional Organizations
Note: These are NOT OSHA regulations. However, they do provide guidance from their originating organizations related to worker protection.
International Code Council (ICC)
- About ICC: Introduction to the ICC. Includes information about the ICC which initiated a request for recognition of its codes by OSHA in May of 2004, with submission of a document in November of 2005 that details a section by section comparison and analysis of the IBC with OSHA's rules in Subpart E. After review of that document OSHA made a preliminary finding, as noted in an ANPRM, recognizing the IBC and IFC as compliant with the OSHA requirements.
- Current Code Development Cycle. Includes information about the code development cycle, the National Institute of Standard's (NIST) World Trade Center Recommendations, disaster response, comparison of the International Building Code (IBC) with NFPA 5000, the Building Construction and Safety Code, as well as ICC policies and procedures.
National Fire Prevention Association (NFPA)
- Codes & Standards. Develops, publishes, and disseminates more than 300 consensus codes and standards intended to minimize the possibility and effects of fire and other risks. Virtually every building, process, service, design, and installation in society today is affected by NFPA documents.
- 1, Uniform Fire Code
- 101, Life Safety Code
- 241, Standard for Safeguarding Construction, Alteration, and Demolition Operations
- 5000, Building Construction and Safety Code
Consensus Standards and the General Duty Clause
Using Consensus standards to support a 5(a)(1) Citation:
A consensus standard can be used to show "industry recognition" of a hazard. However, the hazard must be recognized in the employers' industry, not an industry other than the employers' industry.
- is not used to enforce "should" standards.
- is not used to required abatement methods not required by a specific standard.
- is not normally used to cover categories of hazards exempted by an OSHA standard.
- Each employer shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employee;
- The general duty provisions can only be used where there is no standard that applies to the particular hazard involved.
Evaluation of Potential 5(a)(1) situations:
- Employer failed to keep workplace free of hazards to which employees of that employer were exposed.
- Must involve a serious hazard and employee exposure.
- Does not specify a particular abatement method - only that the employer keeps the workplace free of serious hazards by any feasible and effective means.
- The hazard must be reasonably foreseeable.
- The hazard was recognized.
- Industry recognition
- Employer recognition
- Common-sense recognition
- The hazard caused or was likely to cause death or serious physical harm.
- Feasible means to correct the hazard were available.